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AP II: Chapter 13 Review- Part I
Terms in this set (64)
this is relating to glands of internal secretion
cells, tissues, and organs of endocrine system secrete ... into internal organs
bloodstreams, target cells
hormones diffuse into ... and act on ... ...
this is relating to glands of external secretions
secretions of the exocrine glands enter ..., or ..., that lead to body surfaces
chemical signals, receptor
cells of endocrine system and nervous system communicate using ... ... that bind to ... molecules
these substances are released into extracellular spaces surrounding endocrine cells, where they diffuse into the bloodstream and are carried to all parts of the body
extracellular spaces, endocrine, bloodstream
Hormones are released into ... ... surrounding ... cells, where they diffuse into the ... and are carried to all parts of the body
Hormones are organic/inorganic compounds
steroids and non-steroids
What are the 2 types of hormones?
these type of hormones are lipids with carbon rings and hydrogen atoms
carbon rings and hydrogen atoms
Detail the structure of steroid hormones
steroid hormones are derived from ...
sex, adrenal cortex
steroid hormones include ... hormones and ... ... hormones
also known as "amines", derived from the amino acid tyrosine
Non steroid hormones (amines) are synthesized in the ... ... (inner portion of adrenal gland)
Steroid hormones include sex hormones and secretions of the inner/outer portion of the adrenal gland, aka the adrenal ...
non steroid hormones are synthesized in the inner/outer portion of the adrenal gland, aka the adrenal ...
protein, peptide, and prostaglandins,
name 3 types of non steroid hormones
These type of non steroid hormones are composed of long chains of amino acids that fold into specific molecular structures
non steroid, chains, amino acids, molecular
Protein hormones are non steroid/steroid hormones composed of long ... of ... ... that fold into specific ... structures.
These hormones include hormones secreted by parathyroid gland and/or anterior pituitary gland
parathyroid gland and anterior pituitary gland
Name 2 types of glands that secrete hormones included with protein hormones
These type of non steroid hormones are short chains of amino acids
These hormones include hormones associated with the posterior pituitary gland and some produced in the hypothalamus
posterior pituitary gland and hypothalamus
Name 2 glands that secrete hormones associated with peptide hormones
A group of compounds, aka paracrine substances, that regulate neighboring cells.
non steroid, short, amino
Peptide hormones are non steroid/steroid hormones composed of ... chains of ... acids
A group of compounds composed of lipids, synthesized from arachidonic acid (a type of fatty acid) in cell membrane
lipids, arachidonic, fatty, cell membrane
Prostaglandins are a group of paracrine substances composed of ..., synthesized from ... acid ( a type of ... acid) in ... ...
effects, metabolic processes
Hormones exert their ... by altering ... ...
messages, uniting, binding site, receptor
Hormones deliver ... by ... with the ... ... of its ...
Greater or weaker response when hormones bind to more receptors?
an appropriate response to hormonal levels
The number of receptors change in ways that maintain what?
the increase in the number of receptors on a target cell is called ...
the decrease in the number of receptors on a target cell in response to a prolonged increase in hormonal levels is called ...
a prolonged increase in hormonal levels
Down regulation occurs in response to what?
Type of hormones that are poorly soluble
these hormones are carried in the bloodstream, bound to plasma proteins in a way that they are released in sufficient quantity to affect their target cells
steroid, bloodstream, plasma proteins, sufficient, target cells
... hormones are carried in the ..., bound to ... ... in a way that they are released in ... quantity to affect their ...
these hormones are soluble in lipids that make up the bulk of cell membranes
lipids, cell membranes
steroid hormones are soluble in ... that make up the bulk of ... ...
diffuse into cells, cell, target cells
Steroid hormones are soluble in lipids that make up the bulk of cell membranes so that they can ... ... ... easily and enter any ... in the body, although only ... ... will respond
These hormones are poorly soluble in water and are transported in the blood bound to plasma proteins
poorly soluble in water, transported in the blood bound to plasma proteins
Describe thyroid hormones
hormone receptor complex
This forms when steroid hormones and thyroid hormones combine with specific protein receptors, once inside the cell
steroid hormones and thyroid hormones combine with specific protein receptors
A hormone receptor complex forms when ...
DNA sequences, activating, repressing, genes
After a hormone receptor complex forms inside the cell, it binds to certain ... ..., either ... or ... specific ...
After a hormone receptor complex binds to activated genes, where are the activated genes transcribed into?
activated genes are transcribed into mRNA
After a hormone receptor complex binds to activated genes, what happens?
direct synthesis of proteins
After activated genes are transcribed into mRNA, they enter the cytoplasm, where they ... ... ... ...
enzymes, transport proteins, hormone receptors
After activated genes are transcribed into mRNA molecules, they enter the cytoplasm where they direct synthesis of proteins. Name 3 different types of proteins that these genes could synthesize.
Steroid hormones are only soluble in lipids. They make up the bulk of cell membranes so that they can easily diffuse into cells and enter any cell in the body, although only target cells will respond. Thyroid hormones are non soluble and are blood bounded in plasma proteins. When a steroid hormone and thyroid hormone combine with other certain protein receptors, they form a hormone receptor complex, which binds to DNA sequences (either activating or repressing genes). When this happens, they are transcribed into mRNA, which enters the cytoplasm to direct protein synthesis (such as enzymes, transport proteins, hormones, and receptors).
Describe the process of when steroid hormones and thyroid hormones enter the target cell.
non steroid hormones
These hormones, such as amine, peptide, or protein, combine with specific receptor molecules on the target cell membrane.
binding site and activity site
Name 2 sites each receptor molecule have that non steroid hormones associates with
This site of a receptor molecule binds with the non steroid hormone, causing the receptor's activity to interact with other membrane proteins
interact with other membrane proteins
When a non steroid hormone combines with a receptor molecule's binding site, it causes the receptor's activity to what?
The non steroid hormone that triggers the first step to combine with a receptor molecule is considered the ... ...
When a non steroid hormone combines with a receptor molecule's binding site, it causes the receptor's activity to interact with other membrane proteins. The biochemicals in the cell that induce the changes leading to the hormone effect are called the ... ...
the non steroid hormone that triggers the first step to combine with a receptor molecule
What is the first messenger?
the biochemicals in the cell that induce the changes leading to the hormone effect
What are the second messengers?
Many hormones use ... ... as a second messenger
G protein, enzyme, adenylate cyclase
When the non steroid hormone binds to its receptor, the resulting hormone receptor complex activates a ... ..., which then activates an ... called ... ...
an integral membrane protein with its active site facing the inside of the cell
What is adenylate cyclase?
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