SPE Chapter 2
Terms in this set (33)
The Acheivment of which students are the focus of the No child Left behind Act?
Students with disabilities, preschool students, students without disabilities
What is the IDEA mandated process of screening and identification of individuals suspected of having a disability.
IDE mandates that services be provided to students in what setting?
Least restrictive environment
What major political movement helped secure equal protection rights for children with disabilities?
Civil rights movement.
When determining the least restrictive environment for service delivery, what is this decision based on?
Students Educational Needs
What out of the 6 major components under IDEA not apply?
Individualized family service plan
Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson Central School District v. Rowley (1982)
Centered around "appropriate" education for a child with a hearing impairment. Defined appropriate as reasonable, although not always optimal
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)
Effectively ended seperate but equal schools.
Cedar Rapids Community School District v. Garret F. (1999)
Because of this case, schools are required to provide (non-physician delivered) medical support (such as tracheotomy or catheter care) that makes education accessible to students
Oberti vs. Board of Education of the Borough of Clementon School District (1992)
Supported general education placement needs to be considered before segregated placement. Use of segregated placements must be justified
Daniel R.R. v. State Board of Education (1989)
Resulted in LRE two part test. 1) Is student is making satisfactory progress in general education with appropriate supports and modification? 2) Has student been integrated to the maximum extent appropriate?
PARC v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1972)
Initial FAPE- directed at school-aged students with intellectual disabilities
Law PL 94-142 (1975) Or Handicapped Children Act
Called the "Bill of Rights" for children with disabilities, the "legislative heart of special education," and the "Parent's Law."
Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
Individualized Education Program (IEP)
Procedural Due Process
Education of the Handicapped Act
Amendments of 1986
Affected education and services for young children with special needs and their families
Preschoolers (ages 3-5)
Children from birth through age 2
Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)
PL 101-476 (1990)
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
1990 amendments renamed PL 94-142 as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
Current language used to describe people with disabilities
Individual Transition Plan (ITP) required
Expanded related services
Added autism and traumatic brain injury as distinct disability categories
States held accountable to implement law
IDEA Act Amendments of 1997
IEP changes to support inclusion and transition
Related services expanded to include orientation and mobility services
Mediation procedures developed
Expanded category of developmental delay
Evaluation and reevaluation requirements changed
Federal funding changes
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act
Annual testing for all students in certain grades to demonstrate adequate yearly progress in mathematics, reading, and science
Public access to schools' performance on tests
Provides for parental choice in schools that do not meet annual progress goals
Schools not making sufficient annual progress offer additional services to students
Highly Qualified status for teachers
Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2010
Individuals with Disabilities Education
Improvement Act of 2004
Special education services aligned with national school improvement efforts
Identification of students with learning disabilities through Response to Intervention (RTI)
Highly qualified special education teachers
Evaluation of students
Least Restrictive Environment
To ensure IEP outcomes by ensuring access to general eduction curriculum, extracurricular and other activities
To provide benedit and progress toward outcomes by following the IDEA process
Non discriminatory evaluation procedures and standards
To determine (1) whether the student has a disability and (2) the nature of special eduction and related services.
To include all students
Interventions are designed by a support team and implemented within the classroom to assist a struggling child
Child is formally referred for assessment
Parental permission is obtained
Evaluation is conducted by a multidisciplinary team to determine if a disability is present
Individualized Education Program
An IEP is created by a team that includes:
The Student, when appropriate
The child's teachers including a general education teacher and a special educator
A representative from the school district
An individual able to interpret the instructional implications of the assessments conducted
Other professionals as appropriate
Required Components of Every Individualized Education Program
The students present level of performance
Measurable annual goals
How will progress be measured
Special education services, related and supplementary services
An explanation of the extent to which the student will not participate in the general education setting
Individual, appropriate accommodations used to measure the student's outcomes on state and district assessments
The projected beginning date for services
When a child turns 16, a transition plan
Five Special Factors to Consider When Developing an IEP
-If a child's behavior impedes learning, the team must consider the use of positive behavioral interventions and supports
-If a child has limited English proficiency, the team must consider language needs
-If the child is blind or visually impaired, the team must provide instruction in Braille and the use of Braille
-The team must consider the child's communication needs
-The team must consider whether a child needs assistive technology devices and services
Addressing Progress Through the IEP
Determining Supplementary Aids and Services
Determining Annual Goals
Determining Specially Designed Instruction
Specifying Related Services
Determining Test Accommodations and Alterations
Key Civil Rights Legislation
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
This act employs a broader definition of eligibility than IDEA and states that no individual can be excluded, solely because of their disability, from participating in any program or activity receiving federal funding, including schools.
Schools may be required to develop plans to meet the needs of students who require accommodations.
Section 504 covers the entire lifespan not just the school years.
PL 101-336 (1990)
Disabilities Act (ADA)
Designed to eliminate discrimination against people with disabilities in the pubic and private sectors.
Expanded definitions of eligibility may include people with AIDS, substance abuse issues, or any impairment that limits a major life activity.
Employers, mass transit systems, and companies who provide products and services must make "reasonable accommodations" for people with disabilities.
The Americans with Disabilities Act
Amendments of 2008
Reauthorization of the ADA; commonly called ADAA
Became effective January 2009
Broader interpretation of disability includes additional life activities (reading, concentrating, thinking) or body functions (such as immune system or neurological functioning)
Interpretation of "substantial limitation" made without considering the effects of mitigating measures like medication or medical equipment
Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) supports infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families
Developed based on assessments by professionals and family input
Goals developed to reflect the family's priorities and needs
Reviewed every 6 months