25 terms

APUSH Vocab Review Sheet

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Nomads
people who moved from place to place in search of food of water, they often followed herds of animals such as buffalo that migrated as well
Berlinga Land Bridge
55 mile long land bridge formed between Asia and North America and North America during the last polar ice age, it disappeared as the ice cap melted
Iroquois Indian Nation
a confederacy of Eastern Woodlands tribes based in what is now upper New York State
Matriarchal
mother-based family system, most North American tribes practiced this
Eric the Red
Viking explorer who discovered Greenland in 984 AD
Leif Ericson
son of Eric the Red, Leif estrablished a settlement in approximately 1000 AD called Vinland on what is today northern Newfoundland, never unable to maintain the settlement and left
Islam
religious faith founded by the prophet Muhammad in Arabia in 622 AD
Prince Henry the Navigator
Portugese ruler who started a school of navigation and sent Portugese ships to explore the west coast of Africa with the idea of eventually reaching the East Indies
Renaissance
rebirth, the time when Europeans broke out of the Middle Ages and began to investigate all aspects of the physical world
Reconquista
the holy war waged against the Moors (Islamic faith) by the Roman Catholic monarchs of Spain Ferdinand & Isabella for the successful reunification of Spain under their rule, their success led to them granting a petition to explore in their name to Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
Italian-born (Genoa) adventurer and explorer whose voyage under the Spanish flag in 1492 discovered what became known as the New World, he thought he had reached the Indies
Aztecs
very war-like Native American tribe that conquered Mexico and ruled over the Mexican peninsula for several hundred years, they practiced human sacrifice
Montezuma
ruler of the Aztec nation at the time of the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs
Hernando Cortez
Spanish conquistador/ soldier/ and planter who owned land in Cuba and launched a campaign to conquer the Aztec empire
conquistador
Spanish word for conqueror
colonization
the establishment of distant settlements controlled by the parent country
encomienda
the Spanish land system in the New World in which the Spanish authorities forced the natives to ranch, farm or mine for Spanish landlords, who owned the rights to the lands the natives worked
The Columbian Exchange
the transfer that began with Columbus's first voyage of plants, animals, and diseases between the Western and Eastern Hemispheres
Treaty of Tordesillas
an agreement negotiated by Pope Alexander VI, a Spaniard, and signed between Spain and Portugal in 1494 in which both Catholic nations agreed to divide the Western Hemisphere between them, the ruling ended up giving most of the New World to Spain, and left out the French, English, and Dutch, and was largely unenforceable
Ponce de Leon
governor of Cuba who discovered and explored Florida while searching for the mythical Fountain of Youth, Florida means "the Feast of Flowers," as Florida was discovered on Easter Sunday
St. Augustine
Spanish settlement in Florida founded by Spanish soldier Pedro Menendez de Aviles in 1565, it is the oldest European-founded city in the present-day United States
Jacques Cartier
French explorer who explored Labrador and discovered the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Canada) in search of the Northwest Passage, he followed the St. Lawrence River upstream as far as present-day Montreal
Samuel de Champlain
followed up on Cartier's explorations, discovering the lakes Champlain and Ontario (1607-1608), he founded the settlement known as Quebec, it was during his explorations that Niagra Falls was first seen by white explorers
Pere Jacques Marquette
French explorer who (1673) explored the Great Lakes and discovered the Mississippi River
Sieur de La Salle
Frenchman who followed up on Marquette's explorations and explored the Mississippi Riber all the way to the Gulf of Mexico