D. Jordan Cardiovascular System
Terms in this set (48)
Hollow cone shaped muscular pump. Size varies with body size. Average adult is about 14 cm long and 9 cm wide; approximately the size of thr fist.
Located within the mediastinum (the tissue space between the pleural cavities and lungs bordered by: lungs (laterally), vertebrae (posteriorly), and sternum (anteriorly).
Widest part of the heart, lies beneath the second rib
Pointed end, lies on the diaphragm pointing towards the left, between the fifth and sixth ribs
Structure of the heart
Pericardium pericardial cavity, heart wall, and heart chambers
Encloses and holds the heart and in place while allowing it sufficient freedom of movement to contract. Consists of a tough, fibrous bag (the fibrous pericardium) surrounding the serous pericardium which breaks down into two layers; separated by space.
A condition in which the pericardium becomes inflamed, usually because of viral infections
Space between the fibrous pericardium and the heart. Contains a small amount of fluid which reduces friction between the pericardial membranes. Since the fibrous pericardium is resistant to stretching, any extra fluid in the pericardial cavity restricts the movement of the heart. This compression of the heart is known as cardiac tamponade.
Wall of the heart
Composed of three layers epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium.
Protective layer on the outer surface. Serious membrane consisting of connective tissue covered by epithelium.
Middle layer. Relatively thick and consists of cardiac muscle tissue.
Inner layer in contact with the blood being pumped. Consists of epithelium and connective tissue. Lines all the heart chambers and covers all the internal structures of the heart
Internally the heart is divided into four chambers: right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, and left ventricle.
Upper two chambers. Receiving chambers.
Receives blood returning from all of the body except the lungs. Blood entering the right atrium has low oxygen content.
Receives blood from the lungs by way of the pulmonary veins. Blood in the left atria is rich in oxygen.
Divides the atria
Lower two chambers. Discharging chambers
Pumps blood into the lungs. Has a much thinner muscular wall than the left ventricle. Pumps blood a fairly short distance through the lungs and against a relatively low resistance to blood flow
Pumps the blood to all of the body systems except the lungs. Forces blood to all parts of the body against a great resistance to blood flow. Has a thick muscular wall.
Thin and muscular. Divides the ventricles
Tricuspid and mitral (bicuspid) valve
Located between right atrium and ventricle. Composed of three leaflets or cusps. Allows flow of blood in one direction only, from the right atrium into the right ventricle.
Mitral (bicuspid) valve
Located between left atrium and left ventricle. Composed of two leaflets or cusps. Allows blood to flow in one direction only, from the left atrium into the left ventricle.
Pulmonary and aortic
Pulmonary semilunar valve
Located at the beginning of the pulmonary trunk. Allows blood to flow out of the right ventricle to the lungs but prevents it from flowing back into the ventricles.
Aortic semilunar valve
Located at the beginning of the aorta. Allows blood to flow out of the left ventricle into the aorta but prevents backflow into the ventricle.
Blood supply to the myocardium
Arteries, veins, and sinus
Provide nutritive blood to the heart. Branch from the aorta near where it exits from the left ventricle. Right coronary artery. Left coronary artery. A myocardial infarction (heart attack) occurs when the blood vessels (coronary arteries) that supply the blood to the heart are blocking preventing oxygen from getting to the heart.
Blood passes through capillaries in the heart enters the cardiac veins
Collects blood from the cardiac veins. Empties venous blood from the heart into the right atrium.
Arteries, capillaries, and venules
Vessels that always carry blood away from the heart. Arterioles are the smallest arteries; microscopic vessels that regulate the flow of blood into the capillary networks of the bodies tissues.
Capillaries (the smallest blood vessels)
Microscopic vessels connect arterioles and venules. Found near almost every cell in the body. Function: provide site for exchange of nutrients and wasted between blood and tissue cells.
Small, thin-walled vessels. Drain the capillary blood and begin the return flower of blood back to the heart
Thin walled vessels. Carry blood towards the heart under low pressure. Medium-sized veins, especially those in the limbs, contain valves that allow blood to move toward the heart but prevent flow away from the heart
Factors affecting blood pressure
Heart action, blood volume, and peripheral resistance
Increased heart action will cause an increase in blood pressure. Decreased heart action will cause a decreased blood pressure
Blood pressure is proportional to blood volume. If blood volume decreases, blood pressure will decrease
Hindrance to the flow of blood through the vessels. Blood pressure is proportional to peripheral resistance. Note: Antishock trouser helps maintain blood pressure by increasing resistance to blood flow in the lower extremities
Ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta
Coronary arteries branch off here to supply heart muscle
Brachiocephalic artery, left common carotid artery, and left subclavian artery.
Thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta
Head and neck arteries
Common carotid arteries (external - supply the face and scalp / internal - supply the brain), vertebral arteries (supply the brain)
Arteries of the thorax
Intercostal arteries (branch from the thoracic aorta and pass between ribs), and internal thoracic arteries (branch from the subclavian arteries and supply the mammery glands and intercostal muscles)
Upper extremity arteries