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203 terms

Art 1103 Midterm

STUDY
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What civilization was obsessed with its idea of beauty, and developed mathematical formulas for sculpting the human body so it would achieve ideal perfection?
Classical Greeks
In his famous 1907 photograph, Alfred Stieglitz captures the juxtaposition of the upper and lower classes on board the Kaiser Wilhelm II ship. This photograph is titled ____.
The Steerage
In Laurie Simmons' photograph Red Library #2, the perfect room and robot-like woman are meant to symbolize ____.
the dangers of too much order
In Betye Saar's The Liberation of Aunt Jemima, the artist is protesting the use of Aunt Jemima as a(n) ____.
stereotype
The Roman Emperor Trajan's tomb is a(n) ____ designed to glorify his military victories; centuries later the French adapted this design for ____.
column, Napoleon
The 19th-century painter Jean-François Millet wrote, "I try not to have things look as if chance had brought them together, but as if they had a necessary bond between them." Here, the artist is expressing his quest for ____ in his art works.
harmony
In Nighthawks, Edward Hopper's desolate scene of late night diners in a city café, the scene seems to be set in the period of the ____.
1940s
Robert Barry wrote:
All of the things I know
But of which I am not
At the moment thinking -
1:36PM; June 15, 1969
wordwork
The use of space and atmosphere in Max Beckmann's The Dream could be best described as ____.
claustrophobic and compressed
Henri Matisse and Romare Bearden both utilize ____ to create order and harmony in their versions of the Piano Lesson.
color and shape repetition
African-American artist Faith Ringgold records the story of her life and dreams on a Harlem rooftop. Her painted memories are depicted within the framework of a(n) ____.
patchwork quilt
Images painted directly on a wall or intended to cover a wall completely, such as José Clemente Orozco's Epic of American Civilization: Hispano-American, are known as ____.
murals
In Four Marilyns, Pop artist Andy Warhol participated in the cultural ____ of the film star and icon Marilyn Monroe.
immortalization
Judy Chicago's triangular installation called The Dinner Party was constructed to honor and immortalize ____.
history's notable women
Until modern times, art works have been primarily devoted to ____ themes.
religious
The 16th-century artist Leonardo da Vinci produced what is perhaps the most famous painting in the history of Western art. This painting is known as ____.
Mona Lisa
Marc Chagall's self-portrait I and the Village can best be described as a depiction of ____.
fantasy
Examining a work of art in its historical, social, and political ____ enables you to better understand it.
context
An anti-commercial movement begun in the 1960s in which works of art are conceived and executed in the mind of the artist is known as ____.
conceptual art
Glass sculptor Dale Chihuly's Fioridi Como, located in Las Vegas' Bellagio Hotel, is a 70-foot-long ceiling piece reminiscent of the shapes and brilliant colors of Venice's renowned ____ glass.
murano
Marcel Duchamp's Fountain is a readymade, produced from an upside-down ____.
urinal
Mexican artist Frida Kahlo is best known for her extremely realistic and often anguished ____.
self-portraits
Suzanne Valadon's Adam and Eve subverts ____.
Traditional negative Christian views of women
Picasso protested the horror and brutality of the Spanish civil war in his 1937 masterpiece painting known as ____.
Guernica
When you look at a(n) ____ painting, your eyes are manipulated to see rippling movement and afterimages.
Op Art
Diagonal lines are often used to ____.
imply movement and directionality
In La Source, Prud'hon's nude figure is ____.
carefully modeled and 3 dimmensional
Every Sunday, ____ suggests the motion of the characters by repetition of imagery that changes slightly from frame to frame.
Dilbert
A triangular glass solid that breaks down sunlight or white light into different colors is called a(n) ____.
prism
When an artist places one object in front of another to create the illusion of depth, it is called ____.
overlapping
In art, a ____ is usually defined as a moving dot and is both the simplest and most complex of the visual elements.
line
The ____ shape of an artistic composition is considered the background.
negative
The message or meaning in Helen Frankenthaler's amorphous abstract Bay Side seems to lie primarily in its ____.
color
What inspired Picasso to create his groundbreaking painting known as Les Demoiselles d'Avignon?
African and Iberian art
Actual texture is primarily experienced through the sense of ____.
touch
Mark Tansey's Landscape depicts three-dimensional massive shapes on a two-dimensional surface, creating what is known as ____.
implied mass
In works with ____, the lines are completed by the viewer.
implied line
____, in which parallel lines converge at one or more vantage points on the horizon to create the illusion of depth, was highly refined by ____ artists.
Linear perspective, Renaissance
____ are formed when intersecting or connected lines enclose space.
shapes
From the Italian for "light-dark," what term is sometimes used in place of the word modeling?
chiaroscuro
Light against dark or dark against light create visual differences in ____.
value
The colors opposite each other on the color wheel are ____.
complementary
One of the best ways to create the illusion of motion on a two-dimensional surface is by ____.
blurring outlines
American sculptor Alexander Calder is known for his mobiles, which are excellent examples of ____.
kinetic art
The device of ____ to create unity is reflected in the ages of the youth, their ethnicity, and their suggested bond of friendship in Delilah Montoya's Los Jovenes (Youth).
continuity
Palmer Hayden's The Subway represents a demographic and ethnic cross-section of the strap-hanging riders of 1930s New York City and thus demonstrates ____.
conceptual unity
____ is often a major design element in art forms such as ceramics, basketry, jewelry, and stained glass.
radial balance
When artists focus on the unity of ideas and meaning in their work rather than the visual and compositional elements, they are pursuing ____.
conceptual unity
The compositional unity in Thomas Hart Benton's Palisades derives primarily from ____.
curvilinear shapes and lines
In art, ____ refers to the distribution of the actual or apparent weight of the compositional elements.
balance
Which of the following statements about the patriarchal figure in Viola Frey's Family Portrait does not indicate his influential status within the family?
Toys can be seen in the composition
The classical Greek sculptor Polykleitos was the first known artist to apply the principle of ____ in order to achieve overall naturalistic balance in the human body's stance.
weight shift
Count de Montizon's photograph The Hippopotamus at the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park is trying to communicate the ____ of the exotic animal by comparing it to the nine onlookers behind it.
scale
Andy Warhol's grid-based composition, Ethel Scull Thirty-Six Times, exhibits ____ due to the multidimensional and varied views of Scull's personality and expressions.
variety within unity
The ancient Greeks developed the concept of the ____ because they believed that it created ideal proportions in architecture.
Golden Mean
Variations such as the use of complementary colors and the hazy double of the clear, detailed face of the dog contribute to make William Wegman's Ethiopia an example of ____.
approximate symmetry
In Family of Saltimbanques, Picasso places visual emphasis on the seated woman in the painting through ____.
isolation
Unlike pure, bilateral symmetry, ____ provides variety within an overall unified composition.
approximate symmetry
Whether conscious of the mathematical basis of ancient Greek architectural designs or not, Michelangelo utilized their components when he painted the ____.
Sistine Chapel ceiling
Unlike two-dimensional compositions, three-dimensional objects such as sculptures often have ____.
actual balance
Leonardo da Vinci's Proportion of the Human Figure can best be considered an example of ____.
bilateral symmetry
In Welcome the World Famous Brand, the Luo Brothers portray an overcrowded composition which emphasizes ____.
convergence of consumerism and glabalism
According to Polykleitos, the head of an ideal human body should be ____ of the total height of the body.
one-eighth
If you superimpose a diagram of a ____ over a photograph of the East façade of the Parthenon, it is a perfect fit.
root five rectangle
In its original meaning, a ____ was a full-scale preliminary drawing executed on paper for projects such as frescoes, stained glass, oil paintings, or tapestries.
cartoon
Michelangelo's Studies for the Libyan Sybil is a good example of a drawing that was meant to be used ____.
as preparatory study for another project
____ artists are masters of the brush-and-ink medium. They have used it for centuries for all types of ____.
Japanese, calligraphy
Many of the artist Chuck Close's unidealized portraits, such as Self Portrait/Conte Crayon, are based on a ____, which produces blurry photographic likenesses.
grid transfer method
Honoré Daumier's pen and ink drawing, Counsel for the Defense(the Advocate), is a caricatured illustration of ____.
pompous superficial lawyers
Pen and ink are used to create drawings, such as Jean Dubuffet's Garden, that are essentially ____.
linear
Claudio Bravo's Package is an excellently executed trompe l'oeil drawing that presents the illusion of a package wrapped in ____.
crumpled brown paper and string
In silverpoint drawings, the drawing surface must be coated with a ground of ____.
bone dust or chalk mixed with gum, water, and pigment
The oldest known type of ink is India or China ink, made from a solution of ____.
carbon black and water
The effects of ____ when each is drawn against a paper surface are very similar.
charcoal chalk and pastel
The unforgiving medium of ____ was widely used for drawing from the late Middle Ages to the early 1500s, when it was largely replaced by the lead pencil.
silverpoint
After meeting Ms. Mary Lou Furcron, African American artist Beverly Buchanan's life and art have focused on ____, as seen in Henriette's Yard.
southern shack dwellers
Dr. Seuss, famous for his children's books, worked for a New York tabloid newspaper as chief editorial cartoonist during ____.
WWII
Broadly defined, ____ is the art of running an implement that leaves a mark over a surface.
drawing
With a drawing, the quality of line and the nature of shading are very much affected by the ____ of the support.
texture
Käthe Kollwitz's Self Portrait (Fig. 5-8) reveals one aspect of the character of the ____.
charcoal medium
Which of the following drawing materials cannot be smudged or rubbed for a hazy effect?
silverpoint
Pastels consist of ground chalk mixed with powdered pigments and a binder. Whereas chalk drawings can be traced to prehistoric times, pastels did not come into wide use until the ____.
1400s
From the Latin for "blood," ____ is the name associated with an earthy red chalk color.
sanguine
A form of charcoal was used by our primitive ancestors to create images on ____.
cave walls
Ralph Going's Rock Ola is a contradiction of what we normally consider when we think of a watercolor on paper because the work is considered to be ____.
photorealism
While painting the Egypto-Roman Mummy Portrait of a Man, the artist found it necessary to keep the ____ at a constant temperature.
molten wax
____ was the exclusive painting medium of artists during the Middle Ages.
tempera
Fifteenth-century artist Gentile da Fabriano applied thinly hammered sheets of gold to his Adoration of the Magi tempera panel using a technique known as ____.
gilding
Helen Oji's Mount St. Helen's is an opaque impasto composition in the shape of a(n) ____.
Japanese kimono
The fluidity and portability of watercolor has often lent itself to ____.
rapid sketches and preparatory studies
The Synthetic Cubists were the first to create papiers collés, or collages, in the early 20th century. The two major figures of this movement were ____.
Picasso and Braque
True fresco, or ____, is executed on damp ____.
buon fresco, lime plaster
Pop artist Roy Lichtenstein's portrait of George Washington is an oil-on-canvas image that most resembles a(n) ____.
comic book hero
When a painter's oil paint becomes too thick, he has to thin it with a ____.
medium of turpentine
____ is a mixture of pigment and a synthetic resin vehicle that can be thinned with water
Acrylic
The ancient Egyptians and Greeks tinted their sculptures with ____ to give them a lifelike appearance.
encaustic
In both tempera and oil painting, the surface of the wood or canvas is covered with a ground of powdered chalk or plaster and animal glue known as ____.
gesso
The binding agent that powdered pigment is mixed with to form paint is known as the ____.
vehicle
Rembrandt used ____ to create his oil-on-board painting of the Head of St. Matthew.
impasto
In Roger Shimomura's Untitled painting, he has blended traditional Japanese imagery with American cartoon characters and includes a self-portrait in which he is depicted as ____.
the Statue of Liberty
In Giotto's 14th-century painting Lamentation, joints can clearly be seen that break the blue sky into numerous sections. This occurred because of the ____.
limitations of fresco
Miriam Schapiro's Maid of Honour is a paint-and-fabric construction that she labeled ____.
femmage
Contemporary watercolor is referred to as ____, made up of pigments and a vehicle of ____.
aquarelle, gum arabic
Gilbert Stuart's 18th-century traditional portrait of George Washington achieves a realistic likeness largely through ____.
modeling
In The Painter and His Model, Picasso was able to approximate the effects of mezzotint with a much simpler technique known as ____.
aquatint
In Paul Landacre's Growing Corn, we see a good example of the ____ that can be obtained from the skillful use of wood engraving.
precise lines and tonal gradations
Woodcuts make use of the flat surface of wooden boards, but wood engravings use the end sections of the boards, yielding a ____ surface.
hard, non-directional surface
Chinese artist Wang Guangyi's Great Criticism: Coca-Cola is a ____ that resembles a commercially produced propaganda poster.
color lithograph
A monotype differs from all other printmaking techniques because ____.
it only yields a single, unique image
In the ____ process, the artist creates clean-cut lines on a plate of copper, zinc, or steel by forcing a sharp burin across the surface with the heel of the hand.
engraving
Zhao Xiaomo's Family by the Lotus Pond is a(n) ____. The areas that were not meant to be printed were carved out ____ the surface of the wood.
woodcut, below
____ is a type of etching that can be used to produce the effects of crayon or pencil drawings.
Soft ground etching
Aquatint is frequently used along with line etching to mimic the effects produced by ____.
wash drawings
The female image in Red Coat by Alex Katz is most reminiscent of a ____.
supermodel icon
The oldest form of printmaking is ____, and most likely the first people to use it were the ancient ____.
woodcut, chinese
In the 17th century, a Dutchman developed a technique for mezzotint, from the Italian for ____, in which the metal plate is worked over with a multi-toothed tool called a ____.
half-tint, hatcher
In works such as her Untitled mixed-media print of Chinese girls, Hung Liu's purpose is to ____.
highlight the degradation of previous generations of Chinese women
Serigraphy, or silkscreen, was first developed for use as a(n) ____ medium, a fitting medium because Pop artist ____ used it to create Four Multi-colored Marilyns.
commercial, Andy Warhol
The 20th-century American abstract artist Josef Albers created Solo V, an inkless intaglio technique known as ____.
gauffrage
Lithography, invented in the beginning of the 19th century by a German playwright, is a planographic, or ____, printing process in which a ____ is used.
surface, stone slab
Intaglio prints are made from ____ into which lines have been incised.
metal plates
Mezzotint is rarely used because ____.
it is a painstaking and time consuming procedure
In creating his Christ Crucified between Two Thieves, Rembrandt used a drypoint needle in order to create ____.
soft velvety lines
Etching is a very versatile medium. In Henri Matisse's Loulou in a Flowered Hat, he used ____ to represent the essential features of a woman.
only a few uniformly etched lines
The first photographic process to leave a permanent image was invented in 1826 and known as ____.
heliography
By the 1850s, photographic portrait studios became quite popular and began to serve the needs of ____.
a growing middle class
Salvador Dalí and Luis Buñuel's 1928 surrealistic film Un Chien Andalou was intended by the creators to ____.
evoke instinctive reactions of repulsion and attraction
Edward Steichen's ____, taken in 1906, is one of the foremost early examples of the photograph as a work of art.
Flat-iron building Evening
In both the camera and the ____, light enters a narrow opening and is projected onto a photosensitive surface.
human eye
The "active layer" of film contains a(n) ____ of small particles of ____.
emulsion, silver halide
When a camera shutter opens for a few thousandths of a second over and over in quick succession, ____ shots are being taken.
candid
The advent of the camera replaced the age-old need of art to imitate nature as closely as possible, and this change, in turn, led to the development of 20th century artistic ____.
abstraction
Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother is a touching photograph taken during the period of ____.
The Great Depression
The Artist's Studio, taken in 1837, was the first photograph of its kind and was produced on silver-plated copper by ____.
Daguerre
After the daguerreotype, the next major advance in the history of photography was the development of the ____ process, an example of which is Young Lady with an Umbrella.
autochrome
Alexander Gardner's Home of a Rebel Sharpshooter, Gettysburg is a graphic photo taken during the ____, probably from a camera in a wagon known as a ____.
United States Civil War, whatsit
Which classic early color film depicted real life in black and white and imaginary life in expressionistic color?
Wizard of Oz
Margaret Bourke-White wrote, "Using the camera was almost a relief; it interposed a slight barrier between myself and the white horror in front of me..." Here, Bourke-White is describing ____.
Buchenwald during the Holocaust
With a Polaroid camera, the photograph appears before your eyes. This is an example of ____ film
color reversal
A(n) ____ magnifies faraway objects and collapses the spaces between ordinarily distant objects.
telephoto lens
Higher quality photographs are said to have higher ____.
resolution
The word photography is derived from Greek roots that mean ____.
to write with light
A flash or whirl of abruptly changing newspaper headlines meant to indicate the progression of time and events in a film is known as a ____.
montage
William Wegman's Blue Period is a canine spoof on ____.
Picasso's Old Guitarist
Light sculptor Dan Flavin primarily designs using ____.
fluorescent tubes
In the lost wax process, molten metal is poured into a fire-resistant mold known as a(n) ____.
investiture
Janine Antoni's 600-pound cube, titled Gnaw, is made of ____ and sculpted by ____.
chocolate, teeth
Referring to sculptures such as ____, art critic Robert Hughes said such works were "everything that statues had not been: not monolithic, but open, not cast or carved, but assembled from flat planes."
Picasso's Mandolin and Clarinet
The painful realism of Kiki Smith's figures, complete with body parts and bodily fluids, was likely influenced by her career as a(n) ____.
emergency medical technician
____ is very likely the most demanding type of sculpture because the artist must have a clear concept of the final product from the very beginning of the process.
carving
Wood has more tensile strength than stone, meaning that it can be ____ more.
bent and stretched
Sherry Levine's Fountains after Duchamp pays homage to Marcel Duchamp's original Dada "readymade" and is a classic example of ____.
appropriation art
Due to its ____, clay is frequently used to make three-dimensional preparatory sketches for other sculptures.
weakness
Which of the following is not an additive sculptural process?
carving
Claes Oldenburg's Soft Toilet elevates an everyday object to a work of art and forces us to rethink its function in society. This is an example of ____.
pop art
George Five Open Squares Gyratory is an example of a ____.
kinetic sculpture
Louise Nevelson said, "I began using found objects. I had all this wood lying around and I began to move it around, I began to compose." Nevelson's compositions are considered ____.
assemblages
All but one of the following materials can be used for casting. Which one cannot?
wood
In his Apollo and Daphne (Fig. 2-72), the Italian Baroque sculptor Bernini captured the softness of flesh and the textures of hair, leaves, and bark, thereby showing us the potential of ____ as a sculptural material.
marble
In recent years, artists have produced ____ sculptures by welding, riveting, and soldering.
direct metal
In sculptural works such as Three Figures and Four Benches, George Segal produces plaster replicas of people who seem very ____.
isolated
According to Marcel Duchamp, the function of a readymade was to ____.
prompt the viewer to think and think again
Michelangelo's The Cross-Legged Captive is an example of ____ sculpture.
subtractive
The American sculptor ____ was one of the early pioneers of the ____, the first form of art that made motion a basic element.
Calder, mobile
Andy Goldsworthy's Ice Star was produced using ____.
his breath
Peter Eisenman placed 2711 gray, concrete ____ side by side to create a sense of claustrophobia at the Berlin Holocaust Memorial.
stelae
Cai Guo Qiang's classic example of ephemeral art, Transient Rainbow, came and went in about ____ in June of 2002.
15 seconds
Goldsworthy's Storm King Wall snakes through fields and around trees, ____ and reappears to continue along the landscape.
dips into a pond
Antoni Gaudi was known for his ____ that helped define the Modernista style in Catalonia, Spain
playful, organic forms
Located in Chicago's Millennium Park, Anish Kapoor's ____ is nicknamed ____ because of its elliptical shape.
Cloud gate, the bean
Which of the following is central to Peter Eisenman's Holocaust Memorial in Berlin?
a sense of loss and absence
For The Gates, Christo and Jeanne-Claude installed ____ throughout Central Park in February of 2005.
saffron colored fabric panels
The Cow Parades, turning up in every style and theme imaginable in many cities worldwide, are considered ____.
public art
A ____, located at the entrance to Barcelona's Parc Guell, has become a favorite symbol of the city.
mosaic serpent by Gaudi
Daniel Libeskind's zigzag design for his extension of the Berlin Museum was derived mathematically from plotting the addresses of ____.
Jewish artists killed in the Holocaust
Which of the following statements about the Vietnam Veterans Memorial is not correct?
There is a large label indicating who is being memorialized
One of the most beloved public sculptures in America is Emma Stebbins' Angel of the Waters, located ____.
New York's Central Park
Michelangelo's David was originally installed as a public work of art for the ____ in Florence
Piazza della Signoria
Site-specific works are distinguished from other artworks in that they are produced ____.
in or for one location
Which artist used their body as a building site for miniature dwellings for the work entitled Landscape-Body-Dwelling?
Charles Simonds
Walter de Maria's The Lightning Field is considered a spectacular example of ____.
land art
Which of the following was designed to be a site-specific work?
Big bambu
Probably the most ubiquitous type of monument depicts a man on horseback, known as a(n) ____ statue.
equestrian
The original idea for reinforced concrete began in the 1860s with Jacques Monier, who proposed strengthening concrete ____ with wire mesh.
flower pots
In Frank Lloyd Wright's famous "Fallingwater," he made use of reinforced concrete to produce ____.
cantilevered decks
The interior of the Egyptian temple of Amen-Re at Karnak is cluttered by a forest of columns because of the ____.
weight of the massive stone lintels
Originally a derisive term, ____ uses mass produced, light, easily handled cuts of wood and metal nails for the assembly of millions of homes and small buildings on site.
balloon framing
Nineteenth-century industrialization led to the development of ____ as a building material, and it was the first material to allow the erection of tall buildings with relatively slender walls.
cast iron
Because it rests on a square base, the dome of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople is supported by four triangular surfaces known as ____.
pendentives
____ designed a type of shell architecture for the American Pavilion at Expo 67 in Montreal known as the ____.
Buckminster Fuller, geodistic dome
The Gothic, pointed arch church of Notre-Dame of Paris is bathed in light due to its ample ____.
fenestration
The Church of St. Michael at Hildesheim, Germany, built in the Ottonian period (1001-1031), has square bays and its walls are blank and massive. This is due to its ____.
barrel vaulting
Louis Sullivan's rigid horizontal and vertical processions of façade elements that suggest the regularity of the spaces within his Wainwright Building reinforce Sullivan's famous motto that ____.
form follows function
Which of the following statements about steel cable construction, first used to build the Brooklyn Bridge, is not true?
It can only span very short distances
The Incan fortress of Machu Picchu is considered to be ____ construction, as it was built without any mortar.
dry mortar
Peter Testa believes we "need to rethink how we assemble buildings" and has designed a high-rise tower out of ____.
woven carbon fiber
The Eiffel Tower's magnificent iron trusses were ____.
prefabricated
One of the best preserved ancient Roman aqueduct systems is the ____ near Nimes, France. The ____ of the limestone blocks allowed for the weight of three tiers of arches.
Pont du Gard, compressive strength
The assertive clashing of shapes in Frank Gehry's high-tech Ray and Maria Stata Center at MIT symbolizes ____.
the diverse disciplines that will be housed in the structure
____, primarily used for covering roofs of structures, acquire their strength from the fact that the sides of a triangle, once joined, cannot be forced out of shape.
trusses
Richard Morris Hunt's Griswold House, built in 1863, was designed in the short-lived ____ style. Its exterior treatment resembled an assemblage of matchsticks with many turrets, gables, and dormers.
stick
____ are constructed by placing barrel vaults at right angles to cover a square space known as a ____.
groin vaults, bay
The prehistoric Stonehenge is one of the earliest examples of ____ construction, in which two stones were set vertically and a third stone laid across them, creating an opening beneath.
post and lintel