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What civilization was obsessed with its idea of beauty, and developed mathematical formulas for sculpting the human body so it would achieve ideal perfection?

Classical Greeks

In his famous 1907 photograph, Alfred Stieglitz captures the juxtaposition of the upper and lower classes on board the Kaiser Wilhelm II ship. This photograph is titled ____.

The Steerage

In Laurie Simmons' photograph Red Library #2, the perfect room and robot-like woman are meant to symbolize ____.

the dangers of too much order

In Betye Saar's The Liberation of Aunt Jemima, the artist is protesting the use of Aunt Jemima as a(n) ____.


The Roman Emperor Trajan's tomb is a(n) ____ designed to glorify his military victories; centuries later the French adapted this design for ____.

column, Napoleon

The 19th-century painter Jean-François Millet wrote, "I try not to have things look as if chance had brought them together, but as if they had a necessary bond between them." Here, the artist is expressing his quest for ____ in his art works.


In Nighthawks, Edward Hopper's desolate scene of late night diners in a city café, the scene seems to be set in the period of the ____.


Robert Barry wrote:
All of the things I know
But of which I am not
At the moment thinking -
1:36PM; June 15, 1969


The use of space and atmosphere in Max Beckmann's The Dream could be best described as ____.

claustrophobic and compressed

Henri Matisse and Romare Bearden both utilize ____ to create order and harmony in their versions of the Piano Lesson.

color and shape repetition

African-American artist Faith Ringgold records the story of her life and dreams on a Harlem rooftop. Her painted memories are depicted within the framework of a(n) ____.

patchwork quilt

Images painted directly on a wall or intended to cover a wall completely, such as José Clemente Orozco's Epic of American Civilization: Hispano-American, are known as ____.


In Four Marilyns, Pop artist Andy Warhol participated in the cultural ____ of the film star and icon Marilyn Monroe.


Judy Chicago's triangular installation called The Dinner Party was constructed to honor and immortalize ____.

history's notable women

Until modern times, art works have been primarily devoted to ____ themes.


The 16th-century artist Leonardo da Vinci produced what is perhaps the most famous painting in the history of Western art. This painting is known as ____.

Mona Lisa

Marc Chagall's self-portrait I and the Village can best be described as a depiction of ____.


Examining a work of art in its historical, social, and political ____ enables you to better understand it.


An anti-commercial movement begun in the 1960s in which works of art are conceived and executed in the mind of the artist is known as ____.

conceptual art

Glass sculptor Dale Chihuly's Fioridi Como, located in Las Vegas' Bellagio Hotel, is a 70-foot-long ceiling piece reminiscent of the shapes and brilliant colors of Venice's renowned ____ glass.


Marcel Duchamp's Fountain is a readymade, produced from an upside-down ____.


Mexican artist Frida Kahlo is best known for her extremely realistic and often anguished ____.


Suzanne Valadon's Adam and Eve subverts ____.

Traditional negative Christian views of women

Picasso protested the horror and brutality of the Spanish civil war in his 1937 masterpiece painting known as ____.


When you look at a(n) ____ painting, your eyes are manipulated to see rippling movement and afterimages.

Op Art

Diagonal lines are often used to ____.

imply movement and directionality

In La Source, Prud'hon's nude figure is ____.

carefully modeled and 3 dimmensional

Every Sunday, ____ suggests the motion of the characters by repetition of imagery that changes slightly from frame to frame.


A triangular glass solid that breaks down sunlight or white light into different colors is called a(n) ____.


When an artist places one object in front of another to create the illusion of depth, it is called ____.


In art, a ____ is usually defined as a moving dot and is both the simplest and most complex of the visual elements.


The ____ shape of an artistic composition is considered the background.


The message or meaning in Helen Frankenthaler's amorphous abstract Bay Side seems to lie primarily in its ____.


What inspired Picasso to create his groundbreaking painting known as Les Demoiselles d'Avignon?

African and Iberian art

Actual texture is primarily experienced through the sense of ____.


Mark Tansey's Landscape depicts three-dimensional massive shapes on a two-dimensional surface, creating what is known as ____.

implied mass

In works with ____, the lines are completed by the viewer.

implied line

____, in which parallel lines converge at one or more vantage points on the horizon to create the illusion of depth, was highly refined by ____ artists.

Linear perspective, Renaissance

____ are formed when intersecting or connected lines enclose space.


From the Italian for "light-dark," what term is sometimes used in place of the word modeling?


Light against dark or dark against light create visual differences in ____.


The colors opposite each other on the color wheel are ____.


One of the best ways to create the illusion of motion on a two-dimensional surface is by ____.

blurring outlines

American sculptor Alexander Calder is known for his mobiles, which are excellent examples of ____.

kinetic art

The device of ____ to create unity is reflected in the ages of the youth, their ethnicity, and their suggested bond of friendship in Delilah Montoya's Los Jovenes (Youth).


Palmer Hayden's The Subway represents a demographic and ethnic cross-section of the strap-hanging riders of 1930s New York City and thus demonstrates ____.

conceptual unity

____ is often a major design element in art forms such as ceramics, basketry, jewelry, and stained glass.

radial balance

When artists focus on the unity of ideas and meaning in their work rather than the visual and compositional elements, they are pursuing ____.

conceptual unity

The compositional unity in Thomas Hart Benton's Palisades derives primarily from ____.

curvilinear shapes and lines

In art, ____ refers to the distribution of the actual or apparent weight of the compositional elements.


Which of the following statements about the patriarchal figure in Viola Frey's Family Portrait does not indicate his influential status within the family?

Toys can be seen in the composition

The classical Greek sculptor Polykleitos was the first known artist to apply the principle of ____ in order to achieve overall naturalistic balance in the human body's stance.

weight shift

Count de Montizon's photograph The Hippopotamus at the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park is trying to communicate the ____ of the exotic animal by comparing it to the nine onlookers behind it.


Andy Warhol's grid-based composition, Ethel Scull Thirty-Six Times, exhibits ____ due to the multidimensional and varied views of Scull's personality and expressions.

variety within unity

The ancient Greeks developed the concept of the ____ because they believed that it created ideal proportions in architecture.

Golden Mean

Variations such as the use of complementary colors and the hazy double of the clear, detailed face of the dog contribute to make William Wegman's Ethiopia an example of ____.

approximate symmetry

In Family of Saltimbanques, Picasso places visual emphasis on the seated woman in the painting through ____.


Unlike pure, bilateral symmetry, ____ provides variety within an overall unified composition.

approximate symmetry

Whether conscious of the mathematical basis of ancient Greek architectural designs or not, Michelangelo utilized their components when he painted the ____.

Sistine Chapel ceiling

Unlike two-dimensional compositions, three-dimensional objects such as sculptures often have ____.

actual balance

Leonardo da Vinci's Proportion of the Human Figure can best be considered an example of ____.

bilateral symmetry

In Welcome the World Famous Brand, the Luo Brothers portray an overcrowded composition which emphasizes ____.

convergence of consumerism and glabalism

According to Polykleitos, the head of an ideal human body should be ____ of the total height of the body.


If you superimpose a diagram of a ____ over a photograph of the East façade of the Parthenon, it is a perfect fit.

root five rectangle

In its original meaning, a ____ was a full-scale preliminary drawing executed on paper for projects such as frescoes, stained glass, oil paintings, or tapestries.


Michelangelo's Studies for the Libyan Sybil is a good example of a drawing that was meant to be used ____.

as preparatory study for another project

____ artists are masters of the brush-and-ink medium. They have used it for centuries for all types of ____.

Japanese, calligraphy

Many of the artist Chuck Close's unidealized portraits, such as Self Portrait/Conte Crayon, are based on a ____, which produces blurry photographic likenesses.

grid transfer method

Honoré Daumier's pen and ink drawing, Counsel for the Defense(the Advocate), is a caricatured illustration of ____.

pompous superficial lawyers

Pen and ink are used to create drawings, such as Jean Dubuffet's Garden, that are essentially ____.


Claudio Bravo's Package is an excellently executed trompe l'oeil drawing that presents the illusion of a package wrapped in ____.

crumpled brown paper and string

In silverpoint drawings, the drawing surface must be coated with a ground of ____.

bone dust or chalk mixed with gum, water, and pigment

The oldest known type of ink is India or China ink, made from a solution of ____.

carbon black and water

The effects of ____ when each is drawn against a paper surface are very similar.

charcoal chalk and pastel

The unforgiving medium of ____ was widely used for drawing from the late Middle Ages to the early 1500s, when it was largely replaced by the lead pencil.


After meeting Ms. Mary Lou Furcron, African American artist Beverly Buchanan's life and art have focused on ____, as seen in Henriette's Yard.

southern shack dwellers

Dr. Seuss, famous for his children's books, worked for a New York tabloid newspaper as chief editorial cartoonist during ____.


Broadly defined, ____ is the art of running an implement that leaves a mark over a surface.


With a drawing, the quality of line and the nature of shading are very much affected by the ____ of the support.


Käthe Kollwitz's Self Portrait (Fig. 5-8) reveals one aspect of the character of the ____.

charcoal medium

Which of the following drawing materials cannot be smudged or rubbed for a hazy effect?


Pastels consist of ground chalk mixed with powdered pigments and a binder. Whereas chalk drawings can be traced to prehistoric times, pastels did not come into wide use until the ____.


From the Latin for "blood," ____ is the name associated with an earthy red chalk color.


A form of charcoal was used by our primitive ancestors to create images on ____.

cave walls

Ralph Going's Rock Ola is a contradiction of what we normally consider when we think of a watercolor on paper because the work is considered to be ____.


While painting the Egypto-Roman Mummy Portrait of a Man, the artist found it necessary to keep the ____ at a constant temperature.

molten wax

____ was the exclusive painting medium of artists during the Middle Ages.


Fifteenth-century artist Gentile da Fabriano applied thinly hammered sheets of gold to his Adoration of the Magi tempera panel using a technique known as ____.


Helen Oji's Mount St. Helen's is an opaque impasto composition in the shape of a(n) ____.

Japanese kimono

The fluidity and portability of watercolor has often lent itself to ____.

rapid sketches and preparatory studies

The Synthetic Cubists were the first to create papiers collés, or collages, in the early 20th century. The two major figures of this movement were ____.

Picasso and Braque

True fresco, or ____, is executed on damp ____.

buon fresco, lime plaster

Pop artist Roy Lichtenstein's portrait of George Washington is an oil-on-canvas image that most resembles a(n) ____.

comic book hero

When a painter's oil paint becomes too thick, he has to thin it with a ____.

medium of turpentine

____ is a mixture of pigment and a synthetic resin vehicle that can be thinned with water


The ancient Egyptians and Greeks tinted their sculptures with ____ to give them a lifelike appearance.


In both tempera and oil painting, the surface of the wood or canvas is covered with a ground of powdered chalk or plaster and animal glue known as ____.


The binding agent that powdered pigment is mixed with to form paint is known as the ____.


Rembrandt used ____ to create his oil-on-board painting of the Head of St. Matthew.


In Roger Shimomura's Untitled painting, he has blended traditional Japanese imagery with American cartoon characters and includes a self-portrait in which he is depicted as ____.

the Statue of Liberty

In Giotto's 14th-century painting Lamentation, joints can clearly be seen that break the blue sky into numerous sections. This occurred because of the ____.

limitations of fresco

Miriam Schapiro's Maid of Honour is a paint-and-fabric construction that she labeled ____.


Contemporary watercolor is referred to as ____, made up of pigments and a vehicle of ____.

aquarelle, gum arabic

Gilbert Stuart's 18th-century traditional portrait of George Washington achieves a realistic likeness largely through ____.


In The Painter and His Model, Picasso was able to approximate the effects of mezzotint with a much simpler technique known as ____.


In Paul Landacre's Growing Corn, we see a good example of the ____ that can be obtained from the skillful use of wood engraving.

precise lines and tonal gradations

Woodcuts make use of the flat surface of wooden boards, but wood engravings use the end sections of the boards, yielding a ____ surface.

hard, non-directional surface

Chinese artist Wang Guangyi's Great Criticism: Coca-Cola is a ____ that resembles a commercially produced propaganda poster.

color lithograph

A monotype differs from all other printmaking techniques because ____.

it only yields a single, unique image

In the ____ process, the artist creates clean-cut lines on a plate of copper, zinc, or steel by forcing a sharp burin across the surface with the heel of the hand.


Zhao Xiaomo's Family by the Lotus Pond is a(n) ____. The areas that were not meant to be printed were carved out ____ the surface of the wood.

woodcut, below

____ is a type of etching that can be used to produce the effects of crayon or pencil drawings.

Soft ground etching

Aquatint is frequently used along with line etching to mimic the effects produced by ____.

wash drawings

The female image in Red Coat by Alex Katz is most reminiscent of a ____.

supermodel icon

The oldest form of printmaking is ____, and most likely the first people to use it were the ancient ____.

woodcut, chinese

In the 17th century, a Dutchman developed a technique for mezzotint, from the Italian for ____, in which the metal plate is worked over with a multi-toothed tool called a ____.

half-tint, hatcher

In works such as her Untitled mixed-media print of Chinese girls, Hung Liu's purpose is to ____.

highlight the degradation of previous generations of Chinese women

Serigraphy, or silkscreen, was first developed for use as a(n) ____ medium, a fitting medium because Pop artist ____ used it to create Four Multi-colored Marilyns.

commercial, Andy Warhol

The 20th-century American abstract artist Josef Albers created Solo V, an inkless intaglio technique known as ____.


Lithography, invented in the beginning of the 19th century by a German playwright, is a planographic, or ____, printing process in which a ____ is used.

surface, stone slab

Intaglio prints are made from ____ into which lines have been incised.

metal plates

Mezzotint is rarely used because ____.

it is a painstaking and time consuming procedure

In creating his Christ Crucified between Two Thieves, Rembrandt used a drypoint needle in order to create ____.

soft velvety lines

Etching is a very versatile medium. In Henri Matisse's Loulou in a Flowered Hat, he used ____ to represent the essential features of a woman.

only a few uniformly etched lines

The first photographic process to leave a permanent image was invented in 1826 and known as ____.


By the 1850s, photographic portrait studios became quite popular and began to serve the needs of ____.

a growing middle class

Salvador Dalí and Luis Buñuel's 1928 surrealistic film Un Chien Andalou was intended by the creators to ____.

evoke instinctive reactions of repulsion and attraction

Edward Steichen's ____, taken in 1906, is one of the foremost early examples of the photograph as a work of art.

Flat-iron building Evening

In both the camera and the ____, light enters a narrow opening and is projected onto a photosensitive surface.

human eye

The "active layer" of film contains a(n) ____ of small particles of ____.

emulsion, silver halide

When a camera shutter opens for a few thousandths of a second over and over in quick succession, ____ shots are being taken.


The advent of the camera replaced the age-old need of art to imitate nature as closely as possible, and this change, in turn, led to the development of 20th century artistic ____.


Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother is a touching photograph taken during the period of ____.

The Great Depression

The Artist's Studio, taken in 1837, was the first photograph of its kind and was produced on silver-plated copper by ____.


After the daguerreotype, the next major advance in the history of photography was the development of the ____ process, an example of which is Young Lady with an Umbrella.


Alexander Gardner's Home of a Rebel Sharpshooter, Gettysburg is a graphic photo taken during the ____, probably from a camera in a wagon known as a ____.

United States Civil War, whatsit

Which classic early color film depicted real life in black and white and imaginary life in expressionistic color?

Wizard of Oz

Margaret Bourke-White wrote, "Using the camera was almost a relief; it interposed a slight barrier between myself and the white horror in front of me..." Here, Bourke-White is describing ____.

Buchenwald during the Holocaust

With a Polaroid camera, the photograph appears before your eyes. This is an example of ____ film

color reversal

A(n) ____ magnifies faraway objects and collapses the spaces between ordinarily distant objects.

telephoto lens

Higher quality photographs are said to have higher ____.


The word photography is derived from Greek roots that mean ____.

to write with light

A flash or whirl of abruptly changing newspaper headlines meant to indicate the progression of time and events in a film is known as a ____.


William Wegman's Blue Period is a canine spoof on ____.

Picasso's Old Guitarist

Light sculptor Dan Flavin primarily designs using ____.

fluorescent tubes

In the lost wax process, molten metal is poured into a fire-resistant mold known as a(n) ____.


Janine Antoni's 600-pound cube, titled Gnaw, is made of ____ and sculpted by ____.

chocolate, teeth

Referring to sculptures such as ____, art critic Robert Hughes said such works were "everything that statues had not been: not monolithic, but open, not cast or carved, but assembled from flat planes."

Picasso's Mandolin and Clarinet

The painful realism of Kiki Smith's figures, complete with body parts and bodily fluids, was likely influenced by her career as a(n) ____.

emergency medical technician

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