Foreign Policy 1800's
Terms in this set (42)
Battle of Tippecanoe
Tecumseh & the prophet form confederation and are defeated by William Henry Harrison; makes many americans suspicious of british aid and stirred up talk of canadian invasion
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Problems with expanding
1. Britsh controlled st. Lawrence River and threatened neutral shipping on the open seas. 2. Spain maintained its possessions in the southeast and Mexico. 3. The french controlled new orleans and the territory west of the mississippi River. 4. The presence of Indian tribes in the area east and west of the Mississippi.
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border. It resolved the purchase of florida and the louisiana purchase
Justification for relocation of indians. This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the United States was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
One of the 5 civilized tribes, were literate property owners and had a constitutional government. American supporters of expansion tried to justify by saying that Indians were nomadic, but they were wrong
Orders in Council 1807
Britain blockaded the ports of France and its allies, thereby preventing neutral nations from trading with these nations
Berlin and Milan Decrees
issued by Napoleon stating that neutral ships trading with Britain or obeying the Orders in Council could be seized
America wanted to influence british policy with economic coercion- it allowed Americans to carry or trade with all nations except for Britian and France
signed by thomas jefferson in 1807 - stop export of all american goods and american ships from sailing for foreign ports
Macons bill number 2
created to stop france and england to stop seizing american vessels during wartime- stopped allowing British and French ships to enter American waters
Western settlers who advocated war with Britain because they hoped to aquire Britain's northwest posts (and also Florida or even Canada) and because they felt the British were aiding the Indians and encouraging them to attack the Americans on the frontier. In Congress, the War Hawks were Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun.
Opposed war for personal and commercial reasons- blamed dem-repub for causing conflict between britain and U.S, and sold provisions to British forces and Canada
consequences of the war of 1812
U.S. no seen as effective military and diplomatic entity, us distrust of britain continued, indian tribes defeated- opened area east of mississippi to settlement, nationalism temporarily grew at expense of sectionalism, stimulated american manufacturing
a statement of foreign policy indicating the us was determined to prevent europe from interfering in the affairs of the western hemisphere, the us consequently imposed a hegemonic relationship on Latin America
treaty where the us acquired florida from spain
Whites received an invite from mexican gov't to occupy texas- wanted more people and wanted to establish a new gov't. Conditions: slavery not allowed, must practice catholicism. Texans wanted freedom because disagreed with laws. Americans tried to help texans because they wanted to expand slavery.
Settled in Utah- were a cause of expansion, established settlements in the west
Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo
1848 yielded Texas to west Oregon and California. The United States paid about $15 million for land and assumed claims of the citizens instead of Mexico. Condemned by both opponents who wanted all and no part of Mexico. An ignorant misunderstanding.
Consequences of mex-am war
whigs opposed treaty, thought southern states wanted to expand slavery. some democrats didn't support it, they wanted all of mexico
An agreement between u.s. and great britain providing that neither would attempt to take exclusive control of any future canal route through central america
1853, the purchasing of land from Mexico that completed the continental United States It provided the land needed to build the transcontinental railroad.
a secret 19th century Irish and Irish-American organization dedicated to the overthrow of British rule in Ireland. Irish-Americans raised an army of several hundred men and launched invasions on Canada in 1866 and 1870. the Fenians were trying to persuade Canada to retaliate against England.
The immigrants who went west regenerated American democracy in an environment free of class-based restraints of Europe or the east coast, was consensus
Revisionist frontier thesis
Say turner ignored women/children, say that the government also caused westward expansion- bought the land, funded exploration, etc
Jackson's Indian policy
Was very aggressive towards indians. us bribed indians and promised to leave them alone, but they were already moving from their ancestral land so the damage had been done
said under jackson's presidency, indians moved west because of bribes and compensation. examples: war of 1812, jackson treaty of 1814
Adams-Onís Treaty; Spain ceded eastern Florida to the United States, renounced all claims to western Florida, and agreed to a southern border of the United States west of the Mississippi River extending all the way to the Pacific Ocean, thereby recognizing U.S. claims to the Oregon Territory. This treaty gave the United States its first legitimate claim to the west coast.
Goal was to expand, got rid of washington's farewell address, were hypocrites, expanded notion of democracy
conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin. Included Clay and Webster
Impulses behind imperialism
can help develop nation's naval capacity, can protect vital trade routes, can be used to suppress challenges by the subjugated people of the colony, can be used to launch new conquests and wars of aggression
Carl Von Clauswitz on War
war is an extension of foreign policy when the country can't get what they want, used to enforce international law and self-preservation
said the monroe doctrine established a hegemonic for the us in regards to the western hemisphere and has expanded and extended this policy throughout its history and to all parts of the globe
Said U.S. foreign policy in the first half of the 19th century was based in large part on race and ethnicity.
Mexicans held siege on the Alamo (in San Antonio), Texans lost great number of people, "Remember the Alamo"
American who settled in Texas, one of the leaders for Texan independence from Mexico
James K. Polk
"dark horse" Democratic candidate; acquired majority of the western US (Mexican Cession, Texas Annexation, Oregon Country), lowered tariffs, created Independent Treasury
slavery to be barred in all territory ceded from Mexico; never fullypassed Congress
California Gold Rush
gold discovery in Sutter's Mill in 1848 resulted in huge mass of adventurers in 1849, led to application for statehood, opened question of slavery in the West
Secretary of State under Lincoln and Johnson; purchase of Alaska "Seward's Folly"
Know-Nothing (American) Party
opposed to all immigration, strongly anti-Catholic
supported by know-nothings, anti-immigrant, mainly catholics