Chapters 5: Biomes and Biodiversity, and 6: Environmental Conservation
The location of specific biomes can be predicted based on a) the Coriolis Effect. b) the Second Law of Thermodynamics. c) precipitation and temperature. d) seasonal variations in sunspots. e) large landforms in the area.
c) precipitation and temperature.
Historically, the greatest threat to grasslands has been a) damage by off-road vehicles. b) air pollution. c) conversion to farmland. d) global climate change. e) mineral extraction.
c) conversion to farmland.
In contrast with the ______________, the soil of the ______________ is more nutrient-rich and this type of biome has fewer insects, parasites, and fungal diseases. Therefore, in many places, these areas are highly endangered. a) temperate grasslands; tropical seasonal forest b) tropical rainforest; tropical seasonal forest c) tundra; boreal forests d) tropical seasonal forest; tropical rainforest e) boreal forests; tundra
b) tropical rainforest; tropical seasonal fores
One biome type that has not been as badly threatened as other biomes is a) arctic tundra. b) tropical rainforests. c) grasslands. d) temperate forests. e) southern pine forests.
a) arctic tundra.
We are usually referring to species diversity when we talk about biodiversity. However, genetic diversity is also important to ecological systems because diverse genes a) increase the efficiency and productivity of a system because all niches are filled. b) allow an individual organism to adapt to its changing environment. c) are necessary for a population to evolve in a changing environment. d) lead to diverse ecological processes in a biological community. e) are important for a balanced ecosystem.
c) are necessary for a population to evolve in a changing environment.
Ecological diversity is a measure of the number of a) different kinds of organisms within a community or ecosystem. b) different versions of the same gene in an ecological community. c) sizes, colors, and shapes of organisms within an ecological community. d) niches, trophic levels, and ecological processes of a biological community. e) different species in an ecosystem.
d) niches, trophic levels, and ecological processes of a biological community.
The total number of living species is probably a) about 450,000. b) between 500,000 and 1 million. c) between 3 million and 50 million. d) between 75 and 95 million. e) at least 300 million.
c) between 3 million and 50 million.
Approximately how many species have been identified on Earth? a) about 500,000 b) a little less than 1 million c) about 1.7 million d) a little more than 10 million e) about 30 million
c) about 1.7 million
Most of the species that are yet undiscovered are probably a) mammals and reptiles. b) birds and fish. c) fungi. d) invertebrates. e) multicellular plants.
Species diversity is most concentrated in a) North America and Europe. b) South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia. c) South Africa, Australia, and Europe. d) Oceania, East Asia, and Antarctica. e) North America, South America, and Africa
b) South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia.
Habitat fragmentation usually leads to a(n) a) decrease in biodiversity. b) reduction in the number of introduced species. c) increase in biodiversity due to the isolated populations. d) increase in the number of introduced species. e) more stable environment.
a) decrease in biodiversity.
Which of the following is true? a) Humans may have been causing extinctions thousands of years ago, but our impact has recently increased. b) Humans are responsible for many of the mass extinctions in the geologic record. c) Humans only began causing extinctions in the past 150 years. (X) d) Humans have never had significant impact on species extinctions until the past four decades. (X) e) Humans have been causing extinctions for thousands of years and we are still causing extinctions at about the same rate.
a) Humans may have been causing extinctions thousands of years ago, but our impact has recently increased. (?)
The main reason for the current high rate of animal extinctions is a) uncontrolled sport hunting in the developed world. b) commercial harvesting of wildlife in Africa. c) drought conditions caused by the greenhouse effect. d) habitat destruction worldwide. e) None of these by themselves cause high rates of animal extinctions, but together they combine to cause high rates.
d) habitat destruction worldwide.
Which of the following statements about trade in endangered species is false? a) The principal importers of endangered species are developed countries. b) Overharvesting affects animals more than plants. c) People who say they are animal lovers are the main contributors to the trade. d) The principal exporters of endangered species are developing countries. e) None of these statements are false.
b) Overharvesting affects animals more than plants.
The main reason that there are relatively few invertebrates categorized as endangered species is because a) we consider other groups, such as mammals, to be more interesting and desirable. b) worldwide there are relatively few invertebrates when compared to plants. c) it is extremely difficult to identify and count invertebrates. d) Since there are 532 invertebrates considered endangered, none of these are true. e) invertebrates are more numerous and the relative percentages are similar.
a) we consider other groups, such as mammals, to be more interesting and desirable.
In general, funding for recovery programs is given to species that are a) in the most danger. (X) b) the most important. c) most well known. d) most numerous. e) keystone species. (X)
c) most well known. (?)
The objective of a species recovery plan is to a) interbreed threatened species with common species. b) increase an endangered species population until it is no longer endangered. c) invest corporate capital in species maintenance. d) study the species for a better understanding of its role in the biological community. e) protect the species to aid other organisms and resources in the ecosystem.
b) increase an endangered species population until it is no longer endangered.
Humid tropical forests have extraordinary biological diversity a) because of the very fertile tropical soils. b) because rainfall dissolves soil nutrients and makes them available to plants. c) because water is not a limiting factor. d) despite a complete absence of nutrients in the environment. e) despite the poor, weathered soils.
e) despite the poor, weathered soils.
What is unique about the Mediterranean climate area biome? a) It is a highly desirable place to live. b) It is only found in the Mediterranean area. c) It has very poor soil but supports an extremely diverse array of species. d) It has a large total area. e) It contains a high number of unique species.
e) It contains a high number of unique species.
What biome is characterized by moderate temperatures and abundant precipitation? a) chaparral b) tropical rainforest c) temperate rainforest d) taiga e) No biome has moderate temperatures and abundant precipitation.
c) temperate rainforest
The primary difference between a bog and a fen is a) fens are fed by groundwater, bogs are fed by rainfall. b) fens have many trees, bogs have none. c) fens are always on the coast, bogs are inland. d) All of these are differences between fens and bogs. e) There are no differences between fens and bogs, they are synonymous.
a) fens are fed by groundwater, bogs are fed by rainfall.
Which of the following is not a benefit of high biodiversity? a) aesthetic and cultural value b) potential medicinal value c) potential sources of food d) ecological value e) All of these are benefits of biodiversity.
e) All of these are benefits of biodiversity.
The giant panda is considered to be a _________________ species. a) keystone b) umbrella c) flagship d) indicator e) principal
Tropical moist forests have high species diversity because they have highly developed, diverse niche opportunities and habitats. a) True b) False
Kudzu vine is a Japanese plant that was introduced without negative consequences into the United States to control erosion. a) True b) False
Estuaries contain a mix of fresh and salt water. a) True b) False
In terms of species diversity and complexity, a coral reef would be similar to which terrestrial biome? a) Savannah b) Arctic tundra c) Tropical rainforest d) Chaparral
c) Tropical rainforest
The biome that is most at risk due to over-harvest of organisms might be the a) marine biome. b) tropical rainforest biome. (X) c) tundra biome. d) desert biome.
a) marine biome. (?)
Since tropical forests typically have only a few commercially valuable trees per acre, logging operations a) usually do little damage to the trees that are left. b) do extensive damage because of road building and injury to surrounding trees. c) generally do not encourage conversion of the forest to farmland. d) are usually not successful. e) Tropical forests typically have many more than a few commercially valuable trees per acre.
b) do extensive damage because of road building and injury to surrounding trees.
The most sustainable land use in tropical forests is probably a) logging. (X) b) cattle grazing. c) monoculture agroforestry. (X) d) intensive, efficient modern row cropping. e) milpa farming.
d) intensive, efficient modern row cropping. (?)
Although most of the world's forests are shrinking, biologists are especially concerned about tropical forest loss because a) they contain such high biodiversity. b) tropical trees are the biggest trees in the world. c) they contain irreplaceable wood resources. d) there are fewer remaining tropical forests than any other forest type. e) All of these are reasons that biologists are especially concerned about tropical forest loss.
a) they contain such high biodiversity.
Old-growth forests are notable for containing species that a) are exotic in North America. b) have an unusually high market value. c) are highly adapted to their special environment. d) are found in other North American forests, in very different environmental conditions. e) migrate long distances to feed in the old-growth forests.
c) are highly adapted to their special environment.
Knowing that there are many endangered species found in the old growth forests of the United States, what might you expect remains today of all the old growth forests that stood in the United States before European settlement? a) about 90 percent b) about 35 percent c) about 50 percent d) about 25 percent (X) e) less than 10 percent
e) less than 10 percent (?)
Most commercial loggers prefer "clear-cut" harvesting because it a) is the most environmentally sustainable type of harvest. b) is the most efficient way to get valuable small timber without disturbing the larger early successional trees. c) is the most efficient, cheapest harvest method using large, fast machinery instead of costly labor. d) is the most effective way to refresh soil with sun and rain. e) does not waste any trees.
c) is the most efficient, cheapest harvest method using large, fast machinery instead of costly labor.
Economically, monoculture forestry is advantageous for the loggers because a) it produces large quantities of a single type of tree for a particular use, such as building timber or paper pulp. b) it is labor-intensive and thus increases job opportunities for local people. c) high levels of pesticides and herbicides may be needed, therefore there is more money spent and in the system. d) the increase in wildlife diversity is beneficial to the tourism industry. e) a mix of the different trees leads to a good resource base if the market for one type of timber falls.
a) it produces large quantities of a single type of tree for a particular use, such as building timber or paper pulp.
Annually, the Forest Service __________ on timber sales mainly because of the emphasis on ________________. a) makes a profit; building roads into wilderness areas (X) b) loses money; building roads into wilderness areas c) loses money; exporting logs to Canada d) makes a profit; exporting logs to Canada e) loses money; replanting (X)
c) loses money; exporting logs to Canada (?)
The primary aim of the U.S. Forest Service has historically been to provide ______________ based on Pinchot's philosophy of _________________. a) the benefits of forests for current and future populations; ecocentric preservation b) fire patrols to protect ancient forests; biocentric preservation (X) c) wildlife habitat; biocentric preservation (X) d) public recreation and education; pragmatic conservation e) timber to logging companies; pragmatic conservation
a) the benefits of forests for current and future populations; ecocentric preservation (?)
Seasonal migration allows grazing livestock to a) use the most fertile pastures continuously. b) use marginal lands year after year with modest environmental damage. c) produce more young animals with less range. d) depend more on domestic pastures. e) use only the most nutritious plants in a pasture.
b) use marginal lands year after year with modest environmental damage.
The first symptom of range overgrazing is usually a) gullying. b) the absence of trees. c) the compaction of soils. d) desertification. e) the disappearance of palatable herbs.
e) the disappearance of palatable herbs.
World deserts are a) decreasing as world climate becomes wetter. b) increasing because of the increase in global carbon dioxide. c) increasing because of logging and grazing. d) decreasing because of massive reforestation. e) about the same in area but have many threatened species of plants.
c) increasing because of logging and grazing.
Most public rangelands are in poor condition due to a) excessive populations of wild ungulates. b) overcrowding of private livestock. c) too many publicly owned animals on public lands. d) excessive urban settlement in the West. e) the lack of water.
b) overcrowding of private livestock.
National parks are an important part of our heritage, a) and they remain pristine and undisturbed because of their park status. b) but they lack any protection from mining, logging, and grazing. c) but they are endangered by overcrowding, pollution, and in some places, mining. d) but unfortunately exist only in remote inaccessible areas. e) but they are endangered by overcrowding.
c) but they are endangered by overcrowding, pollution, and in some places, mining.
Over the past decade, the number of park visitors has _______ and park budgets have ________. a) increased by more than one half; increased by about 25% b) increased by one third; decreased by about 25% c) decreased by more than one half; decreased by about 25% d) decreased by one third; increased by about 25% e) stayed about the same; decreased by about 25%
b) increased by one third; decreased by about 25%
Monetary inputs to local economies due to the presence of parks and reserves is a) ecotourism. b) the Man and the Biosphere concept. c) hotspot management. d) a form of REDD. e) causing the destruction of the parks and preserves through overuse.
The highest rate of forest loss occurs in a) Asia. b) North America. c) South America. d) Africa. e) Europe.
Which forest harvest method would leave the forest as close to a natural old growth forest as possible? a) Clearcutting. b) Selective harvest. c) Strip cutting. d) Shelterwood harvest. e) Monoculture harvest.
b) Selective harvest.
The increase in which of the species below would indicate to you that the pasture you see is overgrazed? a) Bluestem. b) Fescue. c) Sage. d) Bluegrass. e) Sideoats.
A major limiting factor to success of parks and reserves in developing nations would be a) a lack of biodiversity in those countries. b) a lack of area suitable to set aside as a park or reserve. c) the lack of scientific data to manage the parks and reserves. d) the lack of money and infrastructure to manage the parks and preserves. e) a lack of interest in the development of parks and preserves.
d) the lack of money and infrastructure to manage the parks and preserves.
What technique might you use to determine size and location of a preserve to protect grizzly bears? a) GIS. b) REDD. c) Adaptive management. d) PVA. e) MAB.
Which of the following statements regarding wildlife refuges is true? a) While they may face other obstacles, wildlife refuges rarely have notable pollution problems. b) Hunting is not allowed in wildlife refuges. c) The Bureau of Land Management has made it a priority to expand designated wilderness areas on their lands. d) Wildlife refuges are managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. e) All of these are true.
d) Wildlife refuges are managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
An increased number of cowbirds (a species that likes areas where grassland and forests meet) would be an indicator of a) overharvest of timber. b) overgrazing of grasslands. c) increased edge habitat. d) decreased biodiversity. e) lack of proper habitat management.
c) increased edge habitat.
Which nation listed below has the highest deforestation rate? a) Brazil b) Russia c) Japan d) India e) Canada
A promising approach to encourage conservation and preservation in developing countries is a) utilitarian conservation. b) biocentric preservation. c) the REDD program. d) ecosystem management. e) pastoralism.
c) the REDD program.
One possible solution to the problem of insufficient land area for preserves is to use _______________ to link smaller habitat areas. a) highways b) eco-bridges c) edge effects d) corridors e) none of these are correct.
United States national parks are managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. a) True b) False
The loss of forests can affect rainfall patterns. a) True b) False
Marine reserves are more common and easier to manage than terrestrial reserves. a) True b) False