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Science Chapter 14-15
Terms in this set (150)
Particles lose what during collisions with other particles?
How do particles lose energy?
By colliding into other particles
What are the three assumptions of the kinetic theory?
1. All matter is composed of small particles
2. These particles are in constant, random motion
3. These particles are colliding with each other and the walls of the their container
Is the amount of energy lost when particles bump into each other a small amount or large?
A small amount and can be "neglected" in most cases
What has a definite shape and a definite volume with closely packed molecules?
In a solid, how do molecules move?
They move slightly but don't change position?
What is an orderly arrangement of molecules?
What are two examples of crystals?
salt and diamonds
What is a substance where the molecules are in no particular order?
What are two examples of amorphous?
rubber and wax
What has a definite volume but no definite shape?
In a liquid, particles easily _______________ over each other?
In a liquid, are particles close together or wide apart?
What has no definite volume but no definite shape?
What expands to fill whatever space is available?
In a gas, do particles move rapidly or slowly?
In a gas, particles are in constant ____________ and frequently __________________
In gas, there is low what?
When molecules are far apart with mostly empty space, we call this what?
What is compressible?
What mixes easily with one another?
What has no definite shape and the particles are broken?
What are the most common examples of plasma?
stars, sun, lighting, fire
What conducts electricity?
Scientists estimate that much of the matter in the universe is what?
Plasma is matter consisting of __________________ and ______________________ charged particles.
positively and negatively
All of the observed stars, including the sun, consist of what?
Besides the star and the sun, what else is plasma found in?
lightning bolts, neon, fluorescent tubes, auroras
If energy is added to a substance, its particles move faster or slower?
If what is added to a substance, its particles move faster?
If energy is added or subtracted, its particles move faster?
What happens when energy is removed from a substance?
The substances particles move slower
Some changes in state require what?
Energy is ____________________ in some changes of state
What is constant during changes of state?
What is a measure of the energy of molecules?
When a solid turns to a liquid, this is called _______________?
Liquid to a Gas is what?
Gas to Liquid is what?
When a liquid turns to a solid, this is called ______________?
When a solid turns to a gas, this is called ________________?
Melting, Evaporation and Sublimation require what?
What three processes require energy?
Melting, Evaporation and Sublimation
Particles vibrate faster and faster and eventually break formation when what happens?
When you heat a solid
When you heat a solid, the particles vibrate _____________ and eventually _________________ formation.
The faster they move, the more ________________ energy they have.
Particles that make up ___________ objects move faster than the particles that make up _______________ objects.
What is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles that make up that object?
Temperature of the object
The temperature of an object is a measure of the average _____________________ energy of the particles that make up that object?
As the temperature of the an object increases, the ________________ of the particles in that object increases
In SI units, temperature is measured in ____________?
A more commonly used temperature scale is the ________________ scale?
One kelvin is the same as one ____________ __________________.
Thermal energy that is transferred from something at a higher temperature to something at a lower temperature
Heat is thermal energy that is transferred from something at a __________________ temperature to something at a _________________ temperature.
Heat is a transfer of energy, so it is measured in _____________.
Both heat and energy are measured in what?
Thermal energy is transferred from place to place by:
conduction, convection and radiation
What is the transfer of thermal energy by collisions between particles in matter?
Conduction is the transfer of _______________ energy by ____________________ between particles of matter.
Conduction occurs because particles in ________________ are in _______________ motion.
Liquids and gases can flow and are classified as __________?
In fluids, thermal energy can be transferred by what?
What is the transfer of thermal energy through a fluid by the movement of warmer and cooler fluid from place to place?
Convection is the transfer of thermal energy through a fluid by the movement of ______________ and __________________ fluid from place to place.
warmer and cooler
Almost no matter exists in the space between ____________ and _______________.
Earth and Sun
Since almost no matter exists in the space between earth and the sun, energy cannot be transferred by ___________________ or ____________________.
Convection or conduction
The Sun's energy reaches Earth by __________________.
Radiation waves can travel through space even when no _____________________ is present.
Energy that is transferred by radiation is often called ____________ energy.
What is the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves?
Radiation is the transfer of energy by ____________________ waves.
Mass cannot be _______________ or _____________________.
created or destroyed
In both __________________________ and _____________________ changes, the mass of matter stays the same before and after the change.
physical and chemical
In both physical and chemical changes, the _____________ of matter stays the _________________ before and after the change.
Energy cannot be ______________ or ________________.
created of destroyed
Both _________________ and _____________________ cannot be created or destroyed.
mass and energy
Energy is converted from one form to another during a _____________ or _________________ change.
physical or chemical
Anything that has mass and takes up space
__________________ are matter
A substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
An element is a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into _____________ substances by _______________ means.
The smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element
Elements are represented by _____________________ on the Periodic Table
The smallest unit of a substance that keeps all of the physical and chemical properties of that substance
A molecule is the smallest unit of a substance that keeps all of the ____________________ and __________________ properties of that substance.
physical and chemical
A __________________________ acts as a unit
What joins together and make millions of molecules?
Atoms join together and make millions of _________________?
What combines to form a compound?
Elements combine to form a ___________________.
A substance made of atoms of 2 or more different elements that are chemically combined.
A compound is a substance made of _________ of ______ or more different __________________ that are _________________ combined.
atoms, two, elements, chemically
What has unique properties?
A type of matter with a fixed composition
A pure substance
A pure substance is a type of matter with a fixed _____________.
A pure substance cannot be _____________________, where a mixture can be.
A material made up of two or more substances that can be easily separated by physical means.
A mixture is a material made up of two or more _______________ that can be easily separated by _______________ means.
What are formed by mixing pure substances?
Mixtures are formed by mixing _____________ __________________?
What are classified by how thoroughly the substances mix?
Mixtures are classified by how ____________________ the substances mix?
Substances that are not mixed uniformly and are not evenly distributed.
Heterogeneous mixtures are substances that are not mixed _____________________ and are not __________________ distributed.
Components are evenly distributed and the mixture is the same throughout
Homogeneous mixtures are components that are _____________ distributed and the mixture is the _____________ throughout.
Particles that never settled are called what?
What are some examples of colloid?
fog and smoke
Properties of matter such as color and shape are called what?
Physical properties are characteristics that can be observed without what?
changing the identity of the substance
Physical properties are easy to ______________ and ______________ matter.
observe and describe
Physical properties remain __________________ for pure substances and can help _________________ substances.
What three things are physical properties?
mass, volume and density
What are two physical properties besides being easy to observe and describe?
hardness (resistance to breakage) and the ability to dissolve in water
Temperature and pressure at which a solid becomes a liquid..
Melting point is the temperature and pressure at which a _______________ becomes a _________________.
Temperature and pressure at which a liquid becomes a gas.
Boiling point is the temperature and pressure at which a _________________ becomes a ______________________.
A measurement of how much matter is contained in a certain volume of a substance.
Density is a _______________________ of how much matter is contained in a certain ___________________ of a substance.
Describes how a substance reacts and changes into a new substance.
Chemical properties describe how a substance ______________ and ________________ into a new substance.
reacts and changes
Generally chemical properties are not as easy to describe as _________________ properties.
Production of heat or light, appearance of gas bubbles, formation of a solid
evidence of change
What are 3 ways to show "evidence of change?"
production of heat or light, appearance of gas bubbles, formation of a solid. PAF
The ability of a substance to a combine chemically with another substance?
The ability of a substance to combine in the presence of oxygen and burn when exposed to a flame.
Flammability is the ability of a substance to combine in the presence of ______________________ and burn when exposed to a flame.
A substance always has its __________________ properties even if you cannot observe them.
You can observe what kind of property without changing the substance?
You can only observe what kind of property when the identity of the substance is changing?
Iron is what?
Iron reacts with _______________
A physical change affects one or more physical properties of a substance without changing its ___________
Breaking a piece of chalk is an example of what change?
Dissolving is what kind of change?
Salt or sugar into water is what kind of change?
Changing states is what kind of change?
Mixtures can be _______________ separated because they are not ______________________ combined.
Italian Dressing; Oil and Water and examples of what?
Occurs when a substance changes its composition by forming NEW substances.
Chemical changes happen _______________
Batteries die is an example of what change?
Cars rusting is an example of what change?
Fruit ripening is an example of what change?
baking a cake is an example of what change?
New substances that form from chemical properties cannot be _________________ by physical changes.
What can be broken down through chemical changes?
Some compounds can be broken down into what?
elements or simpler compounds
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