88 terms

Neuromotor Test 1

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Longitudinal fissure
Divides the right and left hemispheres. (Deepest and longest fissure)
Lateral sulcus (Sylvian fissure; fissure of Sylvius)
A deep furrow separating the anterior portion of the temporal lobe and the frontal lobe
Central sulcus (Rolando's fissure; fissure of Rolando)
Groove between the frontal and parietal lobes.
Superior frontal gyrus
Most superior row of the frontal lobe, adjacent to the longitudinal fissure
Middle frontal gyrus
Inferior to the superior frontal gyrus
Inferior frontal gyrus
Inferior to the middle frontal gyrus
Precentral gyrus
Area: Vertical row of cortex anterior to the central sulcus (also known as the "primary motor cortex")
Function: Important for the initiation of skilled, voluntary movement to contralateral musculature.
Injury to area: May result in total or partial paralysis
Postcentral gyrus
AKA: Primary somatosensory cortex
Area: Vertical row of cortex posterior to the central sulcus (also known as the "primary somatosensory cortex")
Function: Somatosensation (e.g. body perception of pain, temperature, touch) and Proprioception (e.g. internal awareness of the body in space)
Initial processing of sensation
Supramarginal gyrus
Cap around the posterior end of the lateral sulcus
Angular gyrus
Forms a cap around the posterior end of the superior temporal sulcus
Superior parietal lobule
Upper half of parietal lobe
Inferior parietal lobule
Area: Lower half of parietal lobe (including supramarginal and angular gyrus)
Function: This is an important association cortices. It interprets and integrates information from sensory modalities (multi-modality association cortex...associating/interpreting what we see, hear and feel)
Impact to Function: Could develop issues with aphasia (including issues with reading and writing)
Preoccipital notch
On inferior, posterior surface. Helps in demarcating the boundary between the occipital and temporal lobes
Superior temporal gyrus
Inferior to the lateral sulcus
Middle temporal gyrus
Inferior to the superior temporal gyrus
Inferior temporal gyrus
Inferior to the middle temporal gyrus; extends some to the ventral side
Insula
Location: Lies deep within the lateral sulcus; cerebral cortex viewed by pulling apart frontal and temporal lobes.
Function: Viscerosensory and viceromotor functions (motor programming and swallowing)
Corpus callosum & Parts
Is a massive group of transverse fibers connecting right and left hemispheres at bottom of longitudinal fissure (Parts include the splenium, body, genu, rostrum)
Anterior commissure
Area: Small, transverse fibers located rostral to the thalamus. (Has a light, white pigmentation on the brain)
Function: Much smaller than corpus callosum, but still a landmark to help us identify structures. Also some olfactory sensory fibers.
Internal capsule
Type of projection tract where fibers converge deep within the brain
Corona radiata
Type of projection fiber tract that "fans" from the cerebral cortex
Superior frontal gyrus (medial frontal gyrus)
Gyrus that folds over onto the medial surface, superior and anterior to the cingulate gyrus
Central sulcus (Rolando's fissure)
Medially, a small groove seen between the precentral and postcentral gyri; the posterior border of the frontal lobe
Paracentral lobule
U-shaped connection between the pre and postcentral gyri on the medial surface "little lobe"
Cingulate gyrus
A single row of cortex that sits on top of the corpus callosum (C-shaped)
Parieto-occipital sulcus
Deep groove anterior to cuneus, separating the occipital and parietal lobes
Precuneus
Gyri on the medial surface continuous with the superior frontal gyrus (between the marginal sulcus and the parieto-ocipital sulcus)
Cuneus
Upper half of the medial occipital lobe; posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus
Calcarine sulcus
Deep groove below cuneus in the area of the visual cortex; it unites anteriorly with the parieto-occipital sulcus at an acute angle. Divides occipital lobe.
Lingual gyrus
The lower half the medial occipital lobe, inferior to the calcarine sulcus
Gyrus rectus (straight gyrus)
Elongated gyrus just lateral to the longitudinal fissure.
Olfactory bulb
Enlargement at the tip of the olfactory tract
Olfactory tract
Continuation of olfactory pathway (extends from Olfactory bulb)
Orbital gyri
Gyri of the frontal lobe lateral to the straight gyrus
Parahippocampal gyrus
Is the most medial part of the temporal lobe. Seen from ventral side.
Uncus
Bump of cortex that projects medially at the anterior end of the parahippocampal gyrus
Occipitotemporal gyri
Lateral to parahippocampal gyrus
Rhombencephalon (Hindbrain)
Includes the telencephalon and the diencephalon
Mescenchephalon (Midbrain)
Does not further divide. It is the midbrain (smallest of the 5 divisions). Superior aspect of the brainstem
Prosencephalon (Forebrain)
Includes the mesencephalon and myelencephalon.
Telencephalon
Cerebral hemispheres (cerebrum) and basal ganglia
Diencephalon
Engulfed by the telencephalon (i.e. "between brain"). Includes thalamus and hypothalamus
Mesencephalon
Pons and cerebellum (attached to midbrain structure)
Myelencephalon
Medulla oblongata (most inferior aspect of the brainstem, continuous with spinal cord)
CNS vs. PNS
CNS- brain and spinal cord/bulbar area
PNS- peripheral nerves (cranial and spinal nerves going from the CNS out to the body)
Tracts vs. Nerves
Tracts (CNS), Nerves (PNS) ... Both white matter
Nuclei vs. Ganglia
Nuclei (CNS), Ganglia (PNS) ... Both gray matter
Gray vs. White Matter
Gray (neuron cell bodies), White (axons of neurons)
Frontal Lobe
Motor control and aspects of cognitive function.
Parietal Lobe
Somatosensory (body sensation) perceptions
Temporal Lobe
Auditory functions and forming new memories. Many people with TBI's may have damage to this area and struggle with forming new memories. Clients with dementia/Alzheimer's have destruction of this area.
Occipital Lobe
Visual processing
Limbic System
Basic functions such as emotions, memory and procreation. It is the "old" part of the brain (allocortex) surrounded by neocortex (newer parts of brain). Associated with other structures.
Allocortex
10% of the brain, has fewer layers and is smoother
Neocortex
90% of the brain, has more convolutions
Motor Homunculus
Topography or map of body parts ("little man"). Reflects location/organization of motor activity on the primary motor cortex. Face and hands are larger because they are capable of finer motor movements (area of representation is proportional to degree of motor skills--more motor units dedicated to these functions). Lack of innervation to motor units impacts voluntary movement.
Sensory Homunculus
Topographical organization of the pre central gyrus (face and hands are larger because they are capable of finer perceptions (similar to the primary motor cortex homunculus). Size of area proportional to degree of sensitivity.
Paresis
Motor cortex is damaged... Partial immobility
Paralysis
Motor cortex is damaged... total immobility
Brodmann's Map
Korbinian Brodmann (German anatomist) conducted a structural analysis of the brain. He studied the neurons of the neocortex and grouped areas together based on the similarity of cellular structure (neurons and their cellular structure). Map/numbers generally correspond/correlate to differences in "function"
Projection fibers
Connections that descend/ascend from brain. Includes the corona radiata and the internal capsule
Corona Radiata
o The "fan" of axons that connect to neuronal cell bodies
o Fibers that allow both ascending and descending to or from brain
Internal capsule
Where the fibers of the cornona radiata converge/bundle lower in the brain
Association fibers
(intra-hemispheric) - connect areas within the same hemisphere. Include arcuate fasciculus
Arcuate fasciculus
Prominent pathway that connects regions of the temporal lobe and the frontal lobe. Important in our ability to repeat information (must hear what they are saying and repeat it back to them.
Transverse fibers
(inter-hemispheric) - connect similar areas between hemispheres (i.e. left to right parietal lobe). Includes corpus callosum and anterior commissure.
corpus callosum
It is a massive (largest) group of transverse fibers (300-400 million) that communicate information within the brain.
Splenium
Posterior end of corpus callosum
Body (CC)
primary area of corpus callosum
Genu
Bend of corpus callosum
Rostrum (CC)
Tapers off at the end, develops from this point
Association Cortices
Helps you interpret and add meaning to sensory modality information. (secondary)
Primary
where the sensory information is first received.
Impact of lesions on association cortices.
Can be modality specific (can "wipe out" certain association cortices) Focal impairment to a specific association cortice may result in agnosia
What is Agnosia? An example?
"To Know"
-Affects modalities such as visual or auditory

-Example: Auditory verbal agnosia (pure-word deafness)—difficulty understanding spoken language but recognizes environmental sounds
-Could hear a knock on the door and know that that's what it is, but If someone tells you to open the door, you can't understand that.
-You could say, "I don't understand." (Articulation/speech is intact)
-Could understand it if they wrote it down.

Example: visual agnosia (can see the object, it's shape and colors, but can't make meaning out of what it is.)
-May be difficult to assess comprehension if this is the case, but could make use of their tactile system.
Differences between agnosia and aphasia?
Aphasia impacts all domains of language...
---Would have difficulty with expressive and receptive... (articulation/speech, symbolic/orthographic communication is not intact)
---Would impact multiple modalities.
Intraparietal sulcus
Separates the superior and inferior parietal lobule
Parieto-Occipital sulcus
boundary between the parietal and occipital lobe (small indentation on lateral surface)
Occipital
undifferentiated gyri
Occipital Pole
Area where the occipital lobe tends to taper to its end.
Premotor cortex
Area: Rostral to pre-central gyrus
Function: Activates larger/less skilled groups of muscles then pre central gyrus
Broca's Area
Posterior 1/3 of inferior frontal gyrus. Key area for motor planning of sounds/words. An important "bottle neck" for pathways that impact speech. If there is damage, it could lead to apraxia of speech (difficultly in voluntary initiation of speech)
Supplemental or supplementary motor area (SMA)
Has it's own homunculus, and involves complex movements with several body parts. Motor planning/sequencing of these parts (but not speech) I.e. walking, swallowing, etc.
Prefrontal cortex
Area: Most rostral aspect of frontal lobe (shaded area on map)
Function: Executive functioning (e.g. Goal directed behavior—knowing what you want to do ... planning for goal, initiating the steps to reach goal, problem-solving if there are issues/you didn't meet your goal, decision making) and Emotional reactions such as "affect" (emotional reaction we associate with an experience)
Primary auditory cortex
AKA: Heschl's gyrus
Location: located medially on superior temporal gyrus
Function: Initial processing of auditory signals, not interpretation
Auditory association cortex
AKA: Wernikes
Location: Posterior aspect of suprerior temporal gyrus on the dominant side for language (dominant side = left side for most people)
Function: This area attaches meaning to what we hear (after sound passes through primary auditory cortex).
Impact on Function: Lesions impact understanding of language (Wernike's aphasia)
Primary visual cortex
Location: Medial aspect of occipital lobe... Above/below calacrine sulcus
Function: Cortex receiving visual information
--Lower visual field projects to area above calcarine sulcus
--Upper visual field projects to area below calcarine sulcus
Visual association cortex
Interprets visual impulse (e.g. movement, color, object recognition)