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Criminology Unit 1 - Week 1
Terms in this set (18)
What is the definition of crime
An act which breaks the criminal law of a society
What is the definition of deviancy
Acts which do not follow the social norms/values
What were the 7 categories of crime we looked at
-Road traffic offences
-Public order offences
Explain how criminal acts are not alway deviant and use an example
Not all criminal acts go against the social norms. For example, downloading music or films illigally or slightly speeding when driving. They dont hurt anyone and lots of people do it therefor they are not seen as deviant
Explain how deviancy is a social contruct, use an example.
In some countries being gay is seen as deviant as people do not agree with it because of their culture. In england, most people are brought up to believe that no matter what sexuality you are it is acceptable. In some cultures this is not what they are brought up to believe. This may be because of their religion, for example muslims believe it is deviant because it goes against islam, or the way that you are socialised.
Crime and deviancy are relative, what does this mean
It means that they are prone to change. A crime can always be changed, as can what people perceive to be deviant. For example rape within marraige was legal before 1991 and because people began to see this as deviant and wrong, it was made illigal.
Which factoers need to be tkaen into consideration when talking about whether an act is deviant or not.
-The time period
In Afghanistan running away from an abusive relationship is not a crime, only deviant, however it is treated like a crime. Some women sometimes get 50 years imprisonment. Women usually run away rather than going to the police because a lot of the time the police abuse the women further by raping them, which they can be prosecuted for as having sex with another person other than your partner is illigal, this is called zina.
In America the Sioux Indians have a custom which they do as a right of passage. They pierce their chest as rock against the wind which tied to a tree until the skin snaps and then pierce the other side of their chest and are lifted up by a rope until the skin snaps. This is perfectly legal in america and is done so that the indians can gain strength and power. This may be seen as deviant to us, however to them is it a custom.
Give some examples of crimes which were once legal but ar now not.
-Using heroine (1940s)
-Smacking children (2004)
-Rape within marraige (1991)
-Forced castration (1952)
-Dog mating with a dog from the royal family (2006)
-Gambling in libraries (1898)
Give some examples of acts which were once illigal but are not now
-Supermarket trading on a Sunday (1994)
-Breast feeding in public
Who was Ruth Ellis and what was her story
Ruth Ellis was the last woman to be hung in 1955. She came from an abusive family. Her father abused her and after fleeing from the family she couldnt have effective relationships. She was with a man who abused her and she was having an affair with another man. She ended up murdering her abusive partner by shooting him and then calmly rang the police to turn herself in. It was belived the man she was having an affair with coninced her to kill her partner and that he even drove her to the house and waited outside when she killed him.
Explain, using homosexuality as an example of how when studying deviancy/crime we must consider the time,era in which the crime was commited
When studying crime and deviancy it is important to consider time and era because social construction can change what people perceive as deviant and criminal, such as homosexuality. It was thought of as a deviant act until the public raved bout how homosexuals were not being treat with human rights so homosexuality was made legal due to social construction.
What is the definition of social construct
When something is made by society
Criminality is objective, what does this mean
This means that you cannot argue with it.
Deviancy is subjective, what does this mean
This means that its open to interpretation from individuals
What is a sanction
What are the two types of sanctions and what are the difference
A formal sanction, which is a punishment which would be recorded, and a informal sanction which would not be recorded and would be given by the general public.
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