21 terms

Genome

STUDY
PLAY
Genome
- all genes in an individual or species
Proteome
- all proteins produced by a genome
Translation
- mRNA sequence is used to make a protein
Nucelosomes
- DNA wrapped around histones
- DNA + HISTONES
Histones
- first level of a protein strand
- tighten into chromatin
Chromatin
- DNA + Histone
- continuously packed tightly
- 3D shape specific
Euchromatin
- active in transcription
-has the possibility of everything being read
Heterochromatin
- genes can be permanently inactivated
DNA organization
- histones determine if gene is accessible
- no access to DNA--> no use--> no protein
Transcription and It's three points
- making mRNA to ribosomes to be read as a protein
- Promoter
- Start Site
- Termination
Promoter
- transcription factors bind to DNA to initiate system
- polymerase binds
Start Site
- RNA polymerase (double strand) DNA is unzipped, polymerase reads+ replaces
- RNA bases compliment and bind to DNA
Termination
- DNA is zipped shut
Transcription factors
- bind polymerase so that it can begin the sequence
Acetylation
- allows access from histones for transcriptions to bind
- see photo in notebook
- to make a gene or to not make a gene; HE DECIDES
Methylation
- prevents access
Pre mRNA
- altered in nucleus to form RNA
mRNA
- contains code for synthesis of protein
RNA Splicing
- copy DNA
- introns are removed
- exons spliced together= mRNA
Protein Synthesis
- mRNA in cytoplasm
- mRNA attaches to ribosomes forming polysome for translation
- codons (triplets) go to ribosome to pair
- tRNA with anticodon (complimenting codon but also has an amino acid)
- enzyme makes peptide bond with amino acids on mRNA chain
Role of tRNA
- carries anticodon and amino acid
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