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Authoritarian system

all power is held by few, like dictatorship

Ballot Measure

an election option such as the initiative or referendum that enables voters to enact public policy

Closed Primary

a primary in which only registered members of a particular political party can vote

Conventional Political Participation

political participation that attempts to influence the political process through well-accepted, often moderate forms of persuasion

Crossover Voting

Voting by a member of one party for a candidate of another party


member of a party chosen in each state to formally elect the president and vice president

Electoral College

a group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president


all of the people entitled to vote in a given election


the recent tendency of states to hold primaries early in the calendar in order to capitalize on media attention

General Election

Election in which voters choose their leaders for elected offices


the drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent


the increasing probability to be re-elected to office


the first of a series of actions


the commission that is given to a government and its policies through an electoral victory

Midterm Election

Election held midway between presidential elections.

Open Primary

a primary in which any registered voter can vote (but must vote for candidates of only one party)

Primary Election

a preliminary election where delegates or nominees are chosen

Prospective judgement

a voter's evaluation of a candidate based on what he or she pledges to do about an issue if elected


characterized by plundering or pillaging or marauding


a new apportionment (especially a reallotment of congressional seats in the United States on the basis of census results)


the act of removing an official by petition


The redrawing of congressional and other legislative district lines following the census, to accommodate population shifts and keep districts as equal as possible in population.


a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate

Regional Primary

system where the country would be divided into several regions and hold their primaries on the same day

Retrospective Judgement

a voter's evaluation of the performance of the party in power

Runoff Primary

When no candidate receives a majority of votes, an election held betweent eh two candidates who received the most votes in the primary


delegate slot to the Democratic Party's national convention that is reserved for an elected party official


attendance for a particular event or purpose (as to vote in an election)

Unconventional Political Participation

political participation that attempts to influence the political process through unusual or extreme measures, such as protests, boycotts, and picketing

Unit Rule

a traditional party practice under which the majority of a state delegation can force the minority to vote for its candidate

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