124 terms

Visual Art

Unit 1
STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Aesthetic
..., relating or pertaining to a sense of beauty or art
Art Elements
...qualities of a design that can be seen and worked with independently of its figurative content. They include line, form, value, texture, color, and shape.
Line
a continuos mark on any surface
Contour Line
..., a line that defines edges and surface ridges of an object
Cross Contour Line
Line that describes an object's horizontal or cross contours rather than its vertical contours. emphasizes the volumetric aspects of an object
Implied Line
...a line in a work that is subtlety perceived by the viewer but has no physical form; the overall flow of one line into another in a work, with continuation from one area to the next suggested by their common direction and/or juxtaposition.
Directional Line
..., Line that seems to guide the viewers eye along a particular visual path.
Line of Sight
..., An imaginary line connecting the eye of the viewer to points on an object
Expressive Line
..., lines that are produced to express an idea, mood, or quality.
Descriptive Line
..., lines that help us understand what we are seeing
Diagonal Line
..., a slanted line giving the feeling of mobility or instability, creating dynamic movement or tension.
Horizontal Line
..., a line that is flat and parallel to the ground
Vertical Line
..., a line that goes up and down perpendicular to the ground
Orthogonal Lines
..., The lines that make up the sides of an object in a perspective drawing that relates directly back to the Vanishing Point
Parallel Lines
..., coplanar lines that do not intersect
Geometric
..., characterized by simple geometric forms in design and decoration
Organic
..., describing shapes like blobs, trees or rocks
Shape
...an area which stands out from the space next to it or around it because of a defined boundary or because of a difference of value, color, or texture. 2.Shape is a two-dimensional visual entity. Regular shapes are geometric. Irregular shapes are often organic or biomorphic. Volume is a three-dimensional entity with mass. Like texture, shape and volume can simulate reality, abstract from reality, or be invented.
Implied Shape
..., A suggested or incomplete shape that is mentally filled in by the viewer.
Form
..., 1. Having the three dimensions of length, width, and depth. Also referred to as a solid. 2. The organization, placement or relationship of basic elements, as volumes or voids in a sculpture, so as to produce a coherent image..
3, the appearance of the words on the page
Actual Form
..., something that is 3D and has volume and mass. ex: stapler, has three dimensions: height, width, and depth
Implied Form
..., An image that looks 3-dimensional but it is really 2-dimensional surface such as in a drawing or painting. It has only two- dimensions: length and width.
Space
...All art occupies ____. It allows an object to exist. In two-dimensional art, it refers to the height and width of the picture plane. The illusion of three-dimensional ___ on a flat surface is achieved through a variety of devices, including overlapping, shading, atmospheric perspective, linear perspective, multipoint perspective, and amplified perspective. Types of linear perspective are one-point, two-point, three-point, isometric, and oblique perspective. In three-dimensional art, ____ consists of the physical mass the artwork has as well as the voided area (or negative space) in and around the work.
Positive Space
..., the enclosed areas or objects in an art work
Negative Space
... the unoccupied or empty area left after the positive shapes have been laid down by the artist; however, because these areas have boundaries, they also function as shapes in the total design.
Linear Perspective
..., A mathematical drawing system developed in the Renaissance by Brunelleschi when he observed that with a fixed single point of view, parallel lines appear to converge at a single point in the distance. Brunelleschi applied a single vanishing point to a canvas, and discovered a method for calculating depth. The principle is based on all horizontal lines going towards one or two points on the horizon or at eye level, while vertical lines remain vertical.
1 Point Perspective
..., all lines appear to meet at a single point on the horizion
2 Point Perspective
..., 2 vanishing points are used and the object is diagonal to viewer
3 Point Perspective
..., When lines converge to a third vanishing point; used to draw tall subjects when the view is from below, 2. worm's eye and bird's eye
Aerial Perspective
... Also known as atmospheric perspective...., The haziness that surrounds objects that are farther away from the viewer, causing the distance to be perceived as greater
Foreshortening
A form of perspective where the nearest parts of an object or form are enlarged so that the rest of the form appears to go back in space; To shorten an object to make it look as if it extends backwards into space....
Vanishing Point
...in perspective, the point on the horizon in the distance where two lines seem to converge and visibility ends.
Horizon Line
..., your eye level line; the place where land and sky appear to meet., In linear perspective, the line on which all vanishing points are positioned. More accurately described as the eye line or eye level.
Color Wheel
...red, yellow, and blue. With these three colors (and black and white) all other colors can be made. The primary colors themselves can not be made by mixing other colors (see illustration).
Color-Hue
... the name of a color, visual property of an object dependant on a combination of reflected and absorbed light from the spectrum
Value
lightness and darkness of color
Intensity
..., chromatic purity: freedom from dilution with white and hence vividness of hue
Cool Colors
..., Colors that suggest coolness & are dominated by blues, greens, violets & blue-reds
Warm Colors
... Colors that are mostly made of red, orange, and yellow. They are called warm because they remind us of warm things like the sun or fire.
Complimentary Colors
..., Colors that are directly across from each other on the color wheel. They create a muddy color when mixed.
Triad Color Harmony
..., incorporates the use of THREE hues that are THREE spaces apart on the color wheel
Analogous Color
any set of three or five colors that are closely related in hue(s). They are usually adjacent (next) to each other on the color wheel....
Monochromatic
a color scheme limited to variations of one hue, a hue with its tints and/or shades....
Primary Colors
..., Three colors from which all other colors originate. They are red, blue and yellow.
Secondary Colors
...green, purple, and orange. These three colors are derived from mixing equal amounts of two of the three primary colors (see illustration).
Tertiary Colors
..., These are colors created by combining a primary color and a secondary color. They are yellow-green, blue-green, blue-violet, red-violet, red-orange and yellow-orange.
Achromatic Colors
..., Without color. Black, white, grey (incl. silver & gold). Considered neutrals. They never appear on the color wheel. Not part of the color spectrum.
Neutral Colors
..., beige, ivory, taupe, black, gray, and white
Texture
...the tactile surface characteristics of a work of art that are either felt or perceived visually. 2. _______ consists of physical surface variations that can be experienced tactilely through one's sense of touch. It may be experienced visually by creating an illusion of surface ____. Visual ____ may simulate a surface found in real life; it may simplify or abstract a ______ found in real life; or it may be completely invented by the artist. A _____ consisting of repeated forms creates a pattern. Patterns may be regular or irregular, and they help organize space and ideas.
Design Principles
...the basic aesthetic considerations that guide organization of a work of art. They include balance, movement, emphasis, contrast, proportion, space, and unity.
Harmony
... orderly and pleasing arrangement of shapes, lines, colors
Movement
...as it applies to art, the path that our eyes follow when we look at a work of art.
Balance
a feeling of equality in weight, attention, or attraction of the various elements within a composition as a means of accomplishing unity....
Asymmetrical balance
placement of non-identical forms to either side of a balancing point in such a way that the two sides seem to be of the same visual weight.
Symmetrical Balance
...the placing of identical forms to either side of the central axis of a work to stabilize it visually.
Radial Balance
..., With radial designs the elements radiate from or swirl around in a circular or spiral path.
Contrast
... put in opposition to show or emphasize differences, 2. the perceptual effect of the juxtaposition of very different colors
Emphasis
the stress placed on a single area of a work or a unifying visual theme.
Rhythm
...a continuance, a flow, or a feeling of movement achieved by the repetition or regulated visual units.
Proportion
..., harmonious arrangement or relation of parts or elements within a whole (as in a design)
Medium
..., material used to make art
Art Criticism
..., A systematic discussion of characteristics of an artwork, usually involving four stages: description, analysis, interpretation, and evaluation.
Description
..., writer paints a word picture to describe what they see in the art work by stating facts
Analysis
..., the careful examination of art in order to better understand how it was made and what it means based on dissecting it using formal qualities (art elements and design principles)
Interpretation
..., the subjective process of creating explanations for what we observe and experience in art
Evaluation
..., the act of judging the value or worth of; the result of evaluating; a judgment or appraisal
Craftsmanship
..., 1. the quality of neatness and attention to detail in the work of art, 2. The quality of what a person does. Most admired when a person creates with skill or dexterity, usually with the hands, whether with or without tools.
Design
...The organization or composition of a work; the skilled arrangement of it's parts.
Historical Context
..., historical background of a piece to assist in understanding
Social Context
..., The combination of (a) people, (b) the activities and interactions among people, (c) the setting in which behavior occurs, and (d) the expectations and social norms governing behavior in that setting.
Synthetic Cubism
..., A later phase of Cubism, in which paintings and drawings were constructed from objects and shapes cut from paper or other materials to represent parts of a subject, in order to engage the viewer with pictorial issues, such as figuration, realism, and abstraction. 1912-14
Analytical Cubism
..., The first phase of cubism where the forms are being analyzed, where they are broken down into individual planes and reformed, giving the sense of shifting perspectives and multiple viewpoints. A dull color palette of browns and greys doesn't distract the eye, allowing the viewer to concentrate on form.
Cubism
..., An artistic movement in France beginning in 1907 that featured surfaces of geometrical planes. Founded by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque.
Character Traits
..., the qualities that make up a character's personality
Still Life
.....a painting or other two-dimensional work of art representing inanimate objects such as bottles, fruit, and flowers. Also, the arrangement of these objects from which a drawing, painting, or other art work is made.
Observational Drawing
..., When you draw from real life, not a picture. Includes both still life and figure drawing (drawings of people)
Visual Literacy
..., 1. the ability to evaluate, apply or create visual representations and to understand how they communicate meaning, 2. being educated in the language and terminology of the visual arts.
Numeracy
..., Skill with numbers and mathematics, ability to use, understand, and base decisions on numbers encountered in everyday life situations
Literacy
..., the ability to effectively and efficiently comprehend and utilize a given form of communication, Ability to READ & WRITE
Artist Statement
..., A written commentary by artists about their own work to help them with their own intent and give viewers an entry point to understanding their artifacts.
Synectics
..., a technique for improving creative problem solving by putting something you don't know in terms of something you do you know
Fracture
..., break into pieces
Parody
an artistic work that imitates the style of another work for comic effect
Distort
..., twist out of shape; give a false account of; misrepresent; N. distortion
Metamorphose
..., a series of changes, to change into a different physical form
Composition
..., the spatial property resulting from the arrangement of parts in relation to each other and to the whole
Focal Point
a specific area, element or principle that dominates a work of art; the area in a work which the eye is most compellingly drawn. The viewer's eye is usually drawn there first.
Back Ground
..., the part of the picture plane that appears farthest away from you.
Middle Ground
..., the area in a picture that appears in between the foreground and background
Fore Ground
..., ..., part of painting or picture that is closest to the viewer
Overlapping
..., way of showing depth that deals with placing one object in front of the other
Proportion
..., adjust in size relative to other things
Relationship
..., the ways objects are similar,different or otherwise connected
Palette
...A thin piece of glass, wood or other material, or pad of paper, which is used to hold the paint to be used in painting; also, the range of colors used by a particular painter
Surrealism
...an art style developed in Europe in the 1920's, characterized by using the subconscious as a source of creativity to liberate pictorial subjects and ideas. Surrealist paintings often depict unexpected or irrational objects in an atmosphere of fantasy, creating a dreamlike scenario; An art movement in which one's dreams, nightmares, sub consciousness and fantasy inspired the final works.
Realism
..., literature and visual arts tried to show life as it was, not as it should be; realist painting reflected the increasing political importance of the working class in the 1850's; novels also proved suitable to describe workers' suffering
Impressionism
...a loose spontaneous style of painting that originated in France about 1870. The impressionist style of painting is characterized chiefly by concentration on the general impression produced by a scene or object and the use of unmixed primary colors and small strokes to simulate actual reflected light.
Expressionism
..., 1905. The expressionists stress the artist's inner feelings toward the world. This style was based mainly in Germany. Main artists include: Kathi Kollwitz, Franz Marc, and Edvard Munch.
Hyperrealism
..., Hyperrealism is a genre of painting and sculpture resembling a high-resolution photograph. Hyperrealism is a full fledged school of art and can be considered an advancement of Photorealism by the methods used to create the resulting paintings or sculptures.
Photorealism
...a style of painting in which an image is created in such exact detail that it looks like a photograph; uses everyday subject matter, and often is larger than life.
Graphite
a soft, black, lustrous mineral made of carbon used in lead pencils, paints, crucibles, and as a lubricant.
Charcoal
..., a stick of black carbon material used for drawing
Pastel
...a crayon made from pigment mixed with gum and water and pressed into a stick-shaped form; a work of art created from pastels; a pale color.
Pen and Ink
..., black and colors, a liquid used for printing or writing or drawing
Eraser Shield
..., steel or plastic template to protect the surface being erased
Blending stump
..., tightly rolled paper stick used to blend drawing media
Burnish
..., make shiny by rubbing; polish
Hatch
..., shading consisting of multiple parallel lines
cross hatch
..., a series of intersecting lines that form diamonds where they meet. Lines closer together are darker values. Lines farther apart are lighter values.
scumble
... using small scribble marks to build up value and texture
shading
...showing change from light to dark or dark to light in a picture by darkening areas that would be shadowed and leaving other areas light. Shading is often used to produce illusions of dimension and depth (see illustration).
tint
...a hue with white added. Pink is a tint of red.
tone
..., a quality of a given color that differs slightly from a primary color
chiaroscuro
... Italian "light-dark". The gradation of light and dark values in two-dimensional imagery; especially the illusion of rounded, three-dimensional form created through gradations of light and shade rather than line.
highlight
..., an area of lightness in a picture
shadow
..., An area where light has been blocked by a solid object
cast shadow
..., The shadow thrown by a form onto an adjacent or nearby surface in a direction away from the light source.
reflective light
..., The relatively weak light that bounces off a nearby surface onto the shadowed side of a form.
Gray Scale
refers to the range of gray tones between black and white (see illustration).
Self Portrait
a portrait an artist makes using himself or herself as its subject, typically drawn or painted from a reflection in a mirror. Also a portrait taken by the photographer of himself, either in a mirror, by means of a remote release, or with a self timer.
Sketch
a rough drawing used to capture the basic elements and structure of a situation often used as the basis for a more detailed work.
Thumbnail sketch
...crude, small pencil drawings used to develop the initial concept for a design.
Illustration
a visualization such as drawing, painting, photograph or other work of art that stresses subject more than form. The aim of an Illustration is to elucidate or decorate a story, poem or piece of textual information (such as a newspaper article) by providing a visual representation of something described in the text.
Unity
and organization of parts so that all contributed to a coherent whole. It is the combined result of all principles of design.

Flickr Creative Commons Images

Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through Flickr.com.
Click to see the original works with their full license.