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MGMT 5970 Ch. 2
Terms in this set (51)
- Traditionally, was an external expert management consultant who was paid to work out what was going wrong in an organization and to implement change to put things right.
- Some external change agents adopt the "process consultation" approach where the role of the "expert is to help members of the organization to understand and solve their own problems.
- Today change agent is just as likely to be member of organization as an external consultant. Term often used more loosely
John Kotter: Says it refers to the basic tools and structures with which smaller-scale change are controlled.
Kotter: Says it marshals the driving forces and visions that produce large-scale transformations. His main point, we need more change leadership.
"Images of their role as change manager"
Those responsible for driving and implementing changes have their own images of organizations which clearly influences the ways in which change managers approach the change process and the management style they adopt.
"Multiple perspectives, images, or frames concerning the change management role"
Ability to work this way is central to personal effectiveness of change manager and change process.
Director, Navigator, Caretaker, Coach, Interpreter, Nurturer
Two Broad Images of the Task of Managing
Controlling or Shaping Activity
Three Broad Images of Change Outcomes
Intended, Partially Intended, or Unintended
Why focus on change outcomes and not on the change process in this approach?
Outcomes of change do not always depend entirely on the decisions and actions of those implementing changes. Change outcomes are often affected by events and developments outside the organization and beyond management control.
Management as Controlling
Work of Henri Fayol. What managers do, POSDCoRB.
Planning, organizing, supervising, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting. Reflects a top down hierarchal view of managing. This image is reflected today by Mintzberg.
Controlling: Henry Mintzberg
Describes contemporary management roles in terms of deciding, focusing, scheduling, communicating, controlling, leading, networking, building coalitions, and getting things done.
Controlling: Harold Sirkin
Argues that "soft factors" i.e. culture, leadership, and motivation do not significantly affect success of organizational change and that managers should concentrate on "hard factors" like controlling, communicating, scheduling, monitoring.
Controlling: Hard Factors Three Properties
1. Companies are able to measure them in direct or indirect ways.
2. Companies can easily communicate their importance, both within and outside organizations.
3. (most important) Businesses are capable of influencing those elements quickly.
Management as Shaping
Participative management style that encourages involvement in decision making in general, and in deciding the content and process of change in particular.
Shaping: Employee Involvement In change is based on two assumptions
1. Those that are closet to the action will have a better understanding of how things can be improved.
2. Staff are more likely to be committed to making changes work if they have contributed to design of those changes.
-Success of transformational change depends on "engaging employees collaboratively throughout the company and throughout the transformation journey" and "building capabilities- particularly leadership capabilities'
-When frontline staff members feel a sense of ownership and take initiative to drive change. 79% effectiveness when both principles used.
Controlling or Shaping
No right or wrong answer. Must consider what is most appropriate or effective given the circumstances.
3 Broad Strategies For Intended Change
Assume that people pursue their own self-interest. Effective change occurs when a change can be demonstrated as desirable and is aligned with the interests of the group who are affected. Where change has those properties, then intended outcomes will be achieved.
Assume that changes occur when people abandon their traditional, normative orientations and commit to new ways of thinking. Producing intentional outcomes this way involves changes in information and knowledge, but also in attitudes and values.
Rely on achieving the intended outcomes through the complaint behavior of those who have less power. Power may of course be exercised by legitimate authority or through other, less legitimate, coercive means.
Partially Intended Change Outcomes
Both intended and unintended consequences may emerge from the actions of change manger; externally imposed forces may modify what was originally intended.
Unintended Change Outcomes
Managers often have great difficultly in achieving the change outcomes that were intended. Variety of internal and external forces that can push change in unplanned directions.
Unintended Change Outcomes: Internal Forces
Long established working practices
Deep-seated perceptions and values that are inconsistent with desired changes
Unintended Change Outcomes: External Forces
Confrontational Industrial Relations
Industry Wide Trends
Director (Controlling Intended Outcomes)
Role: Steer organization toward the desired outcomes
Views management as controlling and change outcomes as being achievable as planned.
Number of "n-step" models for change implementation that are based on image of director.
Director: Contingency Theories
Argue that there is no "one best model" for change managers to follow. Most appropriate approach depends on context and circumstances.
Navigator (Controlling Some Intended Outcomes)
May achieve some intended outcomes, but have little control over other results. Outcomes are at least partly emergent rather than completely planned.
Role: Not to direct, but to identify options, accumulate resources, monitor progress, and navigate.
Navigator: Processual Theories
Are that organizational changes unfold over time in a messy and iterative manner, and thus rely on the image of change manager as navigator. Outcomes shaped by past, present, and future context. Process. Political Behavior.
External and internal factors, the substance of the change (new tech, process redesign, new payment system), or changes to the organization structure and culture.
Tasks, decisions, timing
inside and outside the organization, and the interaction between these factors.
Caretaker (Controlling Unintended Outcomes)
Role: control, although the ability to exercise that control is severely constrained.
views organizations passing through well-defined stages from birth to growth, maturity, and then decline or death. Caretakers can do little to prevent this natural development.
Caretaker: Population Ecology Theory
Focuses on how environment selects organizations for survival or extinction.
- Organizational VARIATION occurs as the result of random chance.
- Organizational SELECTION occurs when environment selects organizations that best fit the conditions.
-Organizational RETENTION involves forces that sustain organizational forms, thus counteracting variation and selection.
Caretaker: Institutional Theory
Argues change managers take broadly similar decisions and actions across whole populations of organizations. Similarities can be explained by pressures associated with interconnectedness of organizations within same sector/environment.
Includes social and cultures expectations and government mandated changes
Organizations that imitate or model themselves on the structure and practices of other organizations in their field, often those that they consider more successful and legitimate
Through professionalization of work such that managers in different organizations adopt similar values and working methods that are similar to each other.
Caretaker: Institutional Theory by DiMaggio and Powell. Organizations that don't succumb to three pressures (coercive, mimetic, normative) Assumption is that these external forces are inexorable and individual mangers have limited ability to implement change outcomes that are not consistent with these forces.
Coach (Shaping Intended Outcomes)
Assumption is that they can intentionally shape the organization's capabilities in particular ways. Establishes right values, skills, and "drills"
Coach: Organizational Development Theory
Stresses importance of values such as humanism, democracy, and individual development. OD "interventions" designed to develop appropriate skills, reduce conflict, and structure activities.
Interpreter (Shaping Some Intended Outcomes)
Taks of creating meaning for others, helping them make sense of events and developments that constitute a changed organization. "need to be able to provide legitimate arguments and reasons for why their actions fit within the situation and should be viewed as legitimate"
Interpreter: Sense Making Theory
Karl Weck; Four Factors have to be present
1. Animation: Must be possible to take some action to address the problem.
2. Direction: That action must be directed toward a purpose or goal.
3. Attention: Context must allow people to be attentive to what is happening and to update their understanding accordingly.
4. Respectful Interaction: People need to be allowed to share their views openly.
Nurturer (Shaping Unintended Outcomes)
Assumes small changes can have large impact on organizations and managers may be unable to control the outcomes of these changes.
Nurturer: Chaos Theory
Argues that organizational change is nonlinear, is fundamental rather than incremental, and does not necessarily entail growth. Penmen of "self organization"
Nurturer: Confucian/Taoist Theory
Change is cyclical, involving constant ebb and flow; processional, involving harmonious movement from one state to another; journey-oriented, involving cyclical change with no end-state; based on maintaining equilibrium, or achieving natural harmony; observed and followed by those who are involved, who seek harmony with their universe; and normal rather than exceptional.
Image In Use Depends on the type of change
Transformational or Developmental/Transitional?
Image in use depends on the Context of change
Ready for change - coach/interpret
Hostility and resistance to change- caretaker/navigator
Change must happen ASAP - director
Image in use depends on the Phase of change
Changing which image manager uses as change progresses into a different phase.
Image in use depends on simultaneous involvement in multiple changes