65 terms

AR 100 Midterm

The study of the human past through their things, combining the themes of time and change
A uniquely human means of non-biological adaptation; a repertoire of learned behaviors for coping with the physical and social environments
Any object or item created or modified by human action
Any of the remains of plants, animals, sediments, or other unmodified materials that result from human activity
The excavation of trenches and squares across manmade layers to expose a cross section of the deposits and reveal the sequence and methods of construction (a branch of geology which studies rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification). It is primarily used in the study of sedimentary and layered volcanic rocks)
Rule based on the sequence of events in the buildup of deposits. As new layers accumulate, the older deposits become progressively more deeply buried. This allows excavating to go backwards in time-- newest on top, oldest on bottom
The relationship between items in an archaeological site, items in association are found close together and/or in the same layer or deposit (used for dating purposes because items found in association are assumed to be of the same age
The soil or physical material in which an excavation is conducted, or within which artifacts or fossils are embedded or supported.
Otzi the Iceman
-Europe's oldest known natural mummy
-Found in the high alps (between Italy and Austria) and thought to have been born near Italy.
-46 years old, 159 cm (5 ft 2 in) 4300 BC
-From stone age - ice froze and mummified body
-Tattoos were visible on back and right leg, had several broken ribs, had arthritis in his neck, lower back, and right hip
-Hadn't eaten in 8 hours, last meal involved bread, greens, and meat (from red deer)
-Found with 7 articles of clothing and 20 pieces of equipment, most important the almost pure copper axe (an indication of the Neolithic period)
-Likely died from violent attack
Refers to the human members of the primates, both fossil and modern forms
Refers to the human, chimp, and gorilla members of the primates, both fossil and modern forms
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
-"Hope of life"
-One of the oldest known species in the human family tree
-Lived between 6 and 7 million years ago in Africa (Chad)
-Flat face and habitual bipedalism
-Miocene hominin
A. afarensis ("Lucy")
-Found in Ethiopia (Hadar) by Donald Johanson
-3.9-2.9 million years old (Pliocene)
-Earliest fossil evidence of hominid bipedalism & one of the most complete specimens of a fossilized human ancestor
-Lucy presents a small skull akin to that of non-hominin apes, plus evidence of a walking upright (bipedal), akin to that of humans (and other hominins); this combination supports that bipedalism preceded increase in brain size
-Long arms, short thumbs, and curved fingers
-Used unmodified hammer-stones or tools made of bone, wood or teeth
-Further confirmed by Mary Leaky's discovery of laetoli footprints
Homo habilis
-2.8-1.6 mya (Lower Paleolithic/ Pleistocene)
-Small brain size, smaller teeth and face than Australopithecus, long arms
-Olduvai pebble tools and first stone tool maker
Homo erectus
1.6 mya-200 kya (Lower Paleolithic/ Pleistocene)
-Increase in brain size, totally upright, post cranial skeleton almost identical to modern humans
-Oldwan tools and Achulean hand axe
-First to walk out of Africa
-No burial
-Used language
-Possible use of fire
-200-28 kya (Middle Paleolithic)
-Sloping forehead, pronounced brow ridge, large face, occipital bun, short, stocky, robust body
-Mousterian assemblages, levallois flakes
- Burials
Homo Sapiens
-200 kya - present (Upper Paleolithic)
-Large brain, distinct chin, vertical forehead, brow edge absent
-Technological innovation (new tools), language, art and decoration, symbolic behavior, ritual
Effects/ Causes of Agriculture
- Identified as a way of life where people are dependent primarily on foods produced in prepared fields
-Happened gradually and possible unexpectedly
-Likely to be discovered by women due to their knowledge of plants
-Population pressure
-Climate change
-Technological innovations
-Allowed for population growth
-Led to development of cities
Early domesticates
Dogs, wheat, barley, sheep, goats, pigs
Levels of social/political organization
-Kinship and marriage systems
-Hunter-gatherers were egalitarian
-Typically divided division of labor by gender
-Post agriculture, hierarchical structures were formed and became more advanced as societies progressed
The exchange of goods between known participants, involving simple barter and face to face exchanges
The accumulation and dispersal of goods through a centralized agency, individual, or institution
Characteristics of hominins
-Little sexual dimorphism (difference in size between male and female members of a species)
-Earliest stone tool used during the Lower Paleolithic period (homo habilis), 2.6-1.7 mya
-Pebble tools and flakes
-Hand axe, hard/soft hammer technique, cleavers, burin (flint tool a chisel point)
-Homo erectus
-Flint tools
-Distinctive type of fluted point, bifacial points
-Similar to solutrean
- Significant because shows that the theory that people traveled to America from Asia by way of a land bridge may be incorrect because you would expect to see these arrowheads all across the US. and many in Alaska, but instead there were few near Alaska and many near Florida
-Found in New Mexico
-More concave base/smaller than Clovis
-Folsom's widest dimension near the middle rather than towards the base
-Found in New Mexico
-Bifacial points
-Southwest Europe
Oasis Hypothesis
-Originally proposed by Raphael Pumpelly (1908)
-Popularized by V. Gordon Childe (1920's and 30's)
-Theory about the origins of agriculture, suggesting that domestication began as a symbiotic relationship between humans, plants, and animals at oases during the drying out of Southwest Asia at the end of the Pleistocene
-Shift to agriculture is not brought on by any voluntary decision, but solely by need
Demographic Pressure Hypothesis
-Shift to agriculture is not brought on by any voluntary decision, but solely by need
-Population growth seen as an independent variable affecting other cultural and environmental factors, not just being affected by them (first suggested by Esther Boserup)
-Based on reborn interest in the ideas of 19th C. demographer Thomas Malthus
-Smith and Young propose that population fluctuation in the Near East created the incidence of population too large for the limits of it s procurement system
Marginal Zone Hypothesis
-Associated with Lewis Binford, and later refined by the work of Kent Flannery
-Assumed late Pleistocene hunting and gathering societies would have been in a state of relative equilibrium and humans would not look for methods of increasing their food supply, as doing so would interrupt that equilibrium
-Agriculture/domestication arose because population pressure forced some people to live in the marginal parts of a land, and responded by experimentation with cultivation
The Seed Genius
-Idea circulated broadly in the 19th Century
-The foundations of agriculture lay in the mind of a single individual
-He or She discovered that seeds made plants and circulated the idea to others
Beringia-Ice Free Corridor
-Clovis First Hypothesis (around 13,000 y BP)
-Says that the Clovis people were the first to travel to/populate the Americas
-Traveled by way of a "land bridge" from Asia to present day Alaska
- Hypothesis is probably incorrect because of Clovis points findings and their similarities to Solutrean points found near Florida
Pacific Coastal Route
-The first people to inhabit North America traveled by boat down the Pacific coast, living in areas of ice free land (refugia) along the way
-Hunted land animals and sea mammals, fished
-Once below the icy lands, settled in central/southern North America
-Supporters of this hypothesis say that one of the reasons sites have not been found is that the coast was submerged when sea levels rose after the ice age, so evidence may lie on ocean floor
Solutrean/Atlantic Route
-Solutrean Hypothesis (around 25,000 y BP)
-People of the Solutrean culture in Ice Age Europe migrated to North America, bringing their methods of making stone tools with them and providing the basis for the later Clovis technology that spread throughout North America
Population Replacement Theory (Out of Africa)
-Homo Erectus left Africa, but were reproductively isolated, so evolved into different species (i.e. neanderthals). Then, homo sapiens arose in probably Africa, migrated out of Africa and replaced all other human populations.
-There are two migrational waves:
1: H. erectus migrating out and peopling Eurasia
H. erectus evolves into different species outside of Africa, notably into H. neanderthalensis
2: Meanwhile in Africa, H. erectus evolves into H. sapiens sapiens who in turn migrates out of Africa in a second wave and replaces the populations of other hominins in Eurasia
-This model best fits the scientific requirement for simplicity→ it is easier to account for a species evolving in one specific area and the propagating from there (out-of-africa) than to account for one species populating three continents and having multiple different populations of the same species evolve into exactly the same species (multiregional)
Multiregional Evolutionary Theory
-Homo erectus moved out of Africa, evolved into homo sapiens by natural selection
-Less likely than out-of-africa theory
Upper Paleolithic Transition
-Dogs were domesticated
-Stone tool flaking
-Bone, wood, ivory, and antler tools
-Bow and arrow
-Appearance of art and decoration
-Arrival of homo sapiens
-Anglican Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland (1581-1656)
-Calculated the date of creation to the night before October 23rd, 4004 BC
-Often misquoted as saying 9AM on 10/23
- Published "Annals of the Old Testament, deduced from the first origins of the world" in 1650
-French Naturalist and paleontologist
-1769 - 1832
-"Father of paleontology"
-"The Prophet of Bones"
-Convinced that the history of the earth was marked by great catastrophes initiated by God
-Catastrophism-changes that we observe throughout earth's history have happened as the result of some catastrophic event (not just a slow gradual change)
-The most recent catastrophism was Noah's Flood as recounted in the Book of Genesis. No Humans Lived Before the Flood
-Linnaeus classification system for fossils and living specimens. Also confirmed extinction
William "Strata" Smith
-English geologist (1769-1838)
-Expert on canals and farm drainage
-Realized that the fossil content of geological layers could link widely separated geological contexts
-Produced the first Geological Map of England in 1815 and with it published a table of 32 strata and the fossils they contained
-Natural processes formed the layers over what he thought would have to be immensely long periods of time
-Realized that catastrophism doesn't make sense because: "we've never seen any sort of catastrophe like Cuvier describes in England before" And
-Natural processes formed layers of rock over immensely long periods of time
De Perthes
-A minor customs official at Abbeville, Northern France
-Ardent Collector of prehistoric artifacts
-Became interested in finely made stone axes that were being dug out of river gravels from the same layers that contained the bones of elephants and other extinct animals
-Called the finds Pre-Celtic and claimed they had been made by humans before the flood
-Discovered flint tools
-Exhibited his finds in Paris in 1838-1839
-British archaeologist (1864-1916)
-Serial hoaxer
-Remembered as "discoverer" of Piltdown man (1912), although it was later learned that the discovery was forged by Dawson
-Piltdown man would have shown a million-year-old apeman, who possessed a large brain but primitive jawbone and teeth
-Piltdown man was thought to be the "oldest englishman" for several decades
ethnical periods
-Early American ethnologist born outside of Rochester New York
-Principal founder of scientific anthropology
-Became interested in local Native Americans and formed a club "Grand Order of the Iroquois" to promote their interests
-Adopted by the seneca tribe
-Wrote Ancient Society published in 1877
Mary Leakey
-British paleoanthropologist (1913-1996)
-Married to Louis Leaky
-Found "Zinj" (partial skull) and fossils of Homo habilis and showed that they have originated during the Pleistocene period
-Found Acheulean handaxes
-Discovered a trail of early human footprints at Laetoli, a site in Tanzania, which were the first in the history of science to provide direct evidence of physical activity by humankind's apelike ancestors, changing previously held assumptions about primates
-Tanzania, Africa
-Area covered with a layer of volcanic ash
-Footprints found by Mary Leaky
-Hares, birds, extinct elephants, pigs, buffalo, rhinos, a saber toothed tiger left footprints
-3 early hominins left footprints, 2 walked 20 ft and one left 30 ft of footprints
-no stone tools found, but shift to bipedalism
Dolni Vestonice
-Moravian Region of the Czech Republic
-Gravettian tools (Upper Paleolithic of Eastern Europe)
-25,000 ya
-Portable Art more than 2300 small figurines
-Found a kiln (oven)
-Carved representations of men, women, and animals, along with personal ornaments, and human burials
-A cave in southwest France with a large collection of Paleolithic paintings and engravings
-Probably never inhabited, but was used from c 15000 BC
-Small number of archaeological finds from inside the cave probably date to the early Magdalenian, including lamps
-600 paintings of bulls, horses, deer, and signs
-1500 engravings dominated by horses
-Some of the paintings (especially the bulls) approach life size (this is unusual for cave art)
-A neanderthal skeleton was found a few hundred meters away at Regoudou
Monte Verde
-Early preceramic site in southern Chile, c 13,000 BP
-One of the few pre-clovis occupations in the New World
-Huts with shallow clay-lined pits, and tools of wood, bone, or stone
-There was a dated layer with evidence of occupation c 33,000 bp, but that is disputed
-This contradicts the previously accepted "Clovis first" model which holds that settlement of the Americas began after 13,500 BP and supports coastal migration
-c AD 900-1300
-Located across the Mississippi River from modern-day St. Louis, it was the largest pre-Columbian city north of Mexico
-Remains of the largest of the Mississippi "Monk's Mound" near Cahokia, which suggests a dominant religious cult and a series of priest-rulers who commanded services of a large population
-Evidence of long distance trade, elaborate ceremonial activity, and possibly astronomical observation
-Evidence of around 10,000-38,000 inhabitants
-Town of warehouses, workshops, residential housing arranged along a grid of streets/open plazas
-1st - 6th Centuries CE
-Grew maize
-Named by the Aztec almost 1000 years after its abandonment
-Aztec's believed it was where their world was created
Place of the gods
Olduvai Gorge
-Northern Tanzania
-One of the most important sites for the understanding of both human evolution and the development of the earliest tools
-Here Louis and Mary Leakey uncovered numerous Hominid remains, animal bones, stone artifacts from c 1.9 million years to less than 10 kya
-Found bones of two primitive forms of hominid, homo habilis and australopithecus robustus
-Crude handaxes dated to 1.2-0.5mya, are accompanied by hominid fossils of homo erectus and h. sapiens
-Proved humans evolved in Africa
Guitarrero Cave
-8000 BCE
-In Andes (dry, Pacific Coastal zone) Peru
-Thomas Lynch=excavator
-Preserved many organic materials, bone knives, fragments of bowls, basketry, and textiles
-Guinea pig domesticated for meat but wasn't abundant
-Ilama used as a pack animal to carry goods across the Andes
-Deer, camelids, rabbits, and small animals, and bird species were hunted
Abu Hureyra
-10,500 - 6,000 BC
- one of the largest early Postglacial sites in Southwest Asia (Syria)
-The site is significant because the inhabitants of Abu Hureyra started out as hunter-gatherers but gradually moved to farming, making them the earliest known farmers in the world
- People lived in small circular pit dwellings
-Recovered 500 liters of plant remains and more than 2 tons of animal bone, antler and shell
-Population reached a high of 2-3000 inhabitants
-Abu Hureyra is remarkable for its excellent faunal and floral preservation, providing crucial evidence for the economic shifts in diet and food production
-Nearly continuously occupied before, during and after the introduction of agriculture in the region
-7500- 5700 BC (Neolithic period)
-Fully sedentary, densely settled populations in South Central Anatolia (Turkey)
-The advent of pottery production
-Provides important evidence of the transition from settled villages to urban agglomeration, which was maintained in the same location for around 2,000 years
-The advent of pottery production
-Rectangular buildings all connected to each other, no streets, people walk around and enter homes through the roof
-Very suitable for agriculture
-As many as 10,000 inhabitants
Gobleki Tepe
-Southern Turkey
-Shrines or centers associated with large stone architecture and remarkable art
-11,000 years ago
-Oldest human made stone structure and has been called the first temple
-Man power/team work
-Has 20 large, round structures
-Pillars decorated with carvings of animals and abstract pictograms
-Not a settlement or habitation site
-Seems to be a center of activity, ceremony, common cause, and of change and transformation
-An ancient Roman town-city near modern Naples
-Founded in the seventh or sixth century BC
-Buried by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE
-Rediscovered during drainage work in the late 16th Century
-Offer an intact vision of daily life in a Roman society in all its aspects
-Salisbury Plain in southern England
-late Neolithic
-Construction took about 1500 years from 300-1500 BC
-Consisted of pillars of sandstone
-Functioned as an observatory to summer solstice (June 21 or 22), sun rises over the Heel Stone
-Used as a solar calendar to mark the changing seasons
'Ain Mallaha
-11-9 kya, lies inside a natural spring in upper Jordan valley (Northern Israel)
-Among earliest village settle anywhere, population around 200-300 people
-Post last ice age by nomadic people
-Contains the earliest known archeological evidence of dog domestication
-Tooth decay indicated cereal consumption
-Bone needles, fish hooks, wild pig, deer, goat, cattle, horse and gazelle
Star Carr
-9000 BC
-Remains of a platform on the edge of a lake
-Visited seasonally by hunters chasing red deer, doe, deer elk, and wild boar
-Dog remains are evidence of dog domestication
-Has the earliest known house in Britain with signs of long lasting or repeated occupation, along with a series of timber platforms spreading along the lake edge, proving not all Mesolithic people were wanderers
-In Ethiopia
-Discovered by Donald Johanson
-3.4 to 2.9 million years old
-Found Lucy
-Found "the first family" over 200 bones from 7 individuals, 5 adults, 2 children found together, fossils found in lakeshore and riverine deposits (maybe killed by a flash flood)
-A. afarensis
-Graveyard from about 5000 BC
-Contained about 22 individuals
-Men buried with flint knives and women with jewelry made of shell and animal teeth
-More than 60 species of animal bones found
-Early evidence of social stratification among hunter-gatherers.
Guila Naquitz
-In Mexico, Valley of Oaxaca
-Occupied at least six times between 8000 and 6500 BC, by microbands (small groups of hunters and gatherers, probably during the fall (August to December) of the year
-The location of the earliest known evidence for domestication of any crop on the continent, Cucurbita pepo (variation of squash), as well as the earliest known domestication of maize
-Evidence of early cultivation of squash and beans
- 200 BCE to 500 CE
-Adena (burial mound complex), presence of circular houses and/or ceremonial structures and abundance of pottery
-Hopewell Exchange System (a common network of trade routes)