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Exercise Physiology Exam 1
Terms in this set (65)
What is pulmonary circulation?
Pumps deoxygenated blood from body to the lungs
What is the flow in pulmonary circulation?
Superior, Inferior Vena Cava > Right Atrium > Tricuspid Valve > Right Ventricle > Pulmonary Valve > Pulmonary Arteries > Lungs
What is systematic circulation?
Pumps oxygenated blood from lungs to body
What is the flow in systematic circulation?
Lungs > Pulmonary Veins > Left Atrium > Mitral Valve > Left Ventricle > Aortic Valve > Aorta
What are the characteristics of the left ventricle?
*Must pump blood to entire body
*Thickest walls (Hypertrophy)
*Hypertrophies with exercise and with disease
What is myocardial blood supply when dealing with the right coronary artery?
*Supplies blood to the right side of the heart
*Divides into marginal, posterior interventricular
What is myocardial blood supply when dealing with the left (main) coronary artery?
*Supplies blood to the left side of the heart
*Divides into circumflex, anterior descending
What does atherosclerosis ultimately turn into?
Coronary Heart Disease
What is the process and locations for the cardiac conduction system?
Spontaneous rhythmicity: special heart cells generate and spread electrical signal > electrical signal spreads via gap junctions > SA node: initiates contraction signal > AV node: delays, relays signal to ventricles > AV bundles: relays signal to RV, LV > Purkinje fibers: send signals into RV, LV
What are the different nodes, bundles, and fibers called when dealing with the cardiac conduction system?
*Sinoatrial Node ( SA node)
*Atrioventricular Node ( AV node)
What is the characteristics of the parasympathetic nervous system?
*Reaches heart via vagus nerve (cranial nerve x)
*Carries impulses to SA, AV nodes; decreases HR, force of contraction
*Decreases HR below intrinsic HR (100 beats per minute)
What is the characteristics of the sympathetic nervous system?
*Opposite effects of parasympathetic
*Carries impulses to SA, AV nodes; increases HR, force of contraction
*Increases HR above intrinsic HR
What is an electrocardiogram (ECG) and what is it used for?
*For recording of the heart's electrical activity
*A diagnostic tool for coronary artery disease
What is the order of the cardiac cycle?
Diastole: relaxation phase > Systole: contraction phase > QRS complex to T wave > Contraction begins > T wave to next QRS complex > Relaxation begins
What is the longest phase in the cardiac cycle?
Diastole: Relaxation Phase
What happens during the ventricular systole phase in the cardiac cycle?
QRS complex to T wave > Contraction begins > ventricular pressure rises > atrioventricular valves close > semilunar valves open > blood ejected > at end, blood in ventricle = end-systolic volume (ESV)
What happens during the ventricular diastole phase in the cardiac cycle?
T wave to next QRS complex > relaxation begins > ventricular pressure drops > semilunar valves close > atrioventricular valves open > fill 70% passively, 30% by atrial contraction > at end, blood in ventricle = end-diastolic volume (EDV)
What is stroke volume?
The volume of blood pumped in one heartbeat
What is the ejection fraction? What is normal and how is it used?
*percent of EDV ( End-Diastolic Volume) pumped
*60 mL/100 mL = 0.6 = 60%
What is cardiac output and how is it calculated?
*Total volume of blood pumped per minute
*Cardiac Output = Heart Rate x Stroke Volume
What is the role of arterioles and how do they function in circulating blood?
*control blood flow; feed capillaries
*Arterioles: resistance vessels
Control systemic R
Site of most potent VC (Vasoconstriction) and VD (Vasodilation)
Responsible for 70 to 80% of P drop from LV to RA
How is mean arterial pressure determined and what is it?
*Average pressure over entire cardiac cycle
*MAP ≈ 2/3 DPB (diastolic) + 1/3 SBP (systolic)
What is the definition of pressure in terms of general hemodynamics?
Force that drives blood flow
What is pressure gradient?
Pressure gradient = 100 mmHg - 0 mmHg = 100 mmHg
What direction is movement in relation to the pressure gradient?
Blood flows from region of high pressure (LV, arteries) to region of low pressure (veins, RA)
What dictates resistance in terms of pressure gradient?
Resistance, force that opposes flow, is provided by physical properties of vessels
What has the most influence on changes to resistance?
How is blood distribution manipulated throughout the body?
*Blood flows where it is needed most
*Often regions of high metabolism generate high blood flow
Ex. blood flow changed after eating; in the heat
What is the intrinsic control of blood flow?
*Ability of local tissues to constrict or dilate arterioles that serve them
*Alters regional flow depending on need
What has an effect on the return of blood to the heart?
Upright posture makes venous return to heart more difficult
What are the three mechanisms that assist the return of blood to the heart?
*One-way venous valves
What are the three major functions of blood in the body?
*Transportation (O2, nutrients, waste)
*Acid-base (pH) balance
What is the blood volume in men & women?
5 to 6 L in men, 4 to 5 L in women
What is the percentage of plasma in the blood?
*Plasma = 55-60% of blood volume
*Can decrease by 10% with dehydration in the heat
*Can increase by 10% with training, heat acclimation
*90% water, 7% protein, 3% nutrients/ions/etc
What is the percentage of forced elements in the blood?
*Formed elements 40-45% of blood volume
*Red blood cells (erythrocytes: 99%)
*White blood cells (leukocytes: <1%)
What is hematocrit and what is the normal level in the blood?
What are red blood cells? What do they do and how long are their life cycles? What is their hemoglobin (Oxygen-transporting protein) makeup?
*Replaced regularly via hematopoiesis
*Life span ~4 months
*Produced and destroyed at equal rates
*250 million hemoglobin/red blood cells
*Oxygen-carrying capacity: 20 mL O2/100 mL blood
How does hematocrit affect viscosity?
Viscosity rises as hematocrit rises
What are the 4 processes associated with transportation in terms of respiration?
*Pulmonary ventilation (external respiration)
*Pulmonary diffusion (external respiration)
*Transport of gases via blood
*Capillary diffusion (internal respiration)
What is the difference between external and internal respiration?
External respiration also known as breathing refers to a process of inhaling oxygen from the air into the lungs and expelling carbon dioxide from the lungs to the air. Exchange of gases both in and out of the blood occurs simultaneously. Internal respiration or tissue respiration/cellular respiration refers to a metabolic process in which oxygen is released to tissues or living cells and carbon dioxide is absorbed by the blood.
Is inspiration an active or passive process and what muscles are included in this process?
*External intercostals move rib cage and sternum up and out
*Scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, pectorals
What is the direction of movement when dealing with inspiration and how is air drawn into the lungs?
*Lung volume increases, intrapulmonary pressure decreases
*Air passively rushes in due to pressure difference
is active. External contract and internal relax. Ribs move up and out and diaphragm contracts increasing the volume which reduces the pressure so air is forced in.
is passive. Internal contract and external relax. Ribs move down and in and diaphragm relaxes decreasing the volume which increases the pressure is air is forced out
What is respiratory pump and its importance?
*Changes in intra-abdominal, intrathoracic pressure promote venous return to heart
*Pressure increases > venous compression/squeezing
*Pressure decreases > venous filling
*Milking action from changing pressures assists right atrial filling (respiratory pump)
What is spirometry used for and what does it measure?
Spirometry is the first and most commonly done lung function test. It measures how much and how quickly you can move air out of your lungs.
the amount of air breathed in or out during normal respiration
the volume of unexpended air that remains in the lungs following maximum expiration
the greatest volume of air that can be expelled from the lungs after taking the deepest possible breath.
Total Lung Capacity
the most air that you can inspire into your lungs
What is pulmonary diffusion and how does it take place?
*Gas exchange between alveoli and capillaries
*Inspired air path: bronchial tree > arrives at alveoli
Blood path: right ventricle > pulmonary trunk > pulmonary arteries > pulmonary capillaries
*Capillaries surround alveoli
What is the make-up of the respiratory membrane?
*Also called alveolar-capillary membrane
*Respective basement membranes
What are the proportions of individual gases in air we breathe?
Air = 79.04% N2 + 20.93% O2 + 0.03% CO2
What is the most important factor for gas exchange between alveoli and blood?
Partial P gradient most important factor for determining gas exchange
What is oxygen diffusion capacity and how does maximal exercise influence it?
*O2 volume diffused per minute per 1 mmHg of gradient
Note: gradient calculated from capillary mean PO2, ≈11 mmHg
*Maximal exercise O2 diffusion capacity
*Venous O2 decreases > PO2 bigger gradient
*Diffusion capacity increases by three times resting rate
Which parts of the lungs are perfused with blood at rest and during exercise
*At Rest = Only bottom 1/3 of lung perfused with blood
*During Exercise = Systemic blood pressure increases opens top 2/3 perfusion
Does carbon dioxide exchange work the same as oxygen?
No, CO2 diffusion constant 20 times greater than O2
How is oxygen transported in blood?
Hemoglobin. The protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen to cells and carbon dioxide to the lungs is hemoglobin
How can anemia affect oxygen carrying capacity?
Anemia > Decreases Hb content > Decreases O2 capacity
What are forms in which carbon dioxide can be transported in blood and what are the percentages for each?
*As bicarbonate ions = Transports 60 to 70% of CO2 in blood to lungs
*Dissolved in plasma = 7 to 10% of CO2 dissolved in plasma
*Bound to Hb (carbaminohemoglobin) = 20 to 33% of CO2 transported bound to Hb
Where does bicarbonate ion come from?
Bicarbonate ion diffuses from red blood cells into plasma
What is arterial-venous oxygen difference?
difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body.
Where is oxygen transported in muscle and how does it compare to hemoglobin?
*O2 transported in muscle by myoglobin
*Similar structure to hemoglobin
*Higher affinity for O2
What factors influence oxygen delivery and uptake and how?
*O2 content of blood > Creates arterial PO2 gradient for tissue exchange
*Blood flow > Decrease Blood flow = Decrease opportunity to deliver O2 to tissue
Exercise increases blood flow to muscle
*Local conditions (pH, temperature) > Decreased pH, Increased temperature promote unloading in tissue
What factors influence regulation of pulmonary ventilation?
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