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Arts and Humanities
Intro to Linguistics Test 1
Terms in this set (100)
Are most humans multilingual or monolingual?
different words used to describe the same thing, any difference in language
writing is the representation of language, writing is a human-made and language is not
How are language and writing not the same ting?
language package containing both form and meaning
combination of words
subject, object, verb; subject, verb, object
What are the two most common word order patterns?
Approximately how many varieities of human language do we have?
assumes one certain form of the language always works better, unitary correct form must be protected from variation, seen as corruption/decay
What must infants build to acquire a language?
language being good or bad is based on how well the language works for the speaker in that context, based on whether the goal of the speaker is obtained
the art of writing in ancient Greece- study of Greek and Latin in middle ages- lost the art of writing in US- now study of how language works
How has the meaning of the term grammar changed?
What is something that all varieties of language have in common?
Language can be sick, variation often seen as a symptom of this sickness
What basic assumption is the foundation for prescriptive grammar advice?
a book about a language, more complete than teaching grammars or prescriptive grammars, technical, to learn how a certain language works
What is a descriptive grammar, and how do linguists use them?
It does the language, it produces and receives language
In the mind, what is the mental grammar's job?
the biological endowment for building a mental grammar, the set of genetic instructions we use as infants to acquire languages, not a mental grammar of any particular language
when multiple meanings are attached to some bit of language, two or more meanings are associated with the form of a word (bat and bat, the child kissed the toddler with the puppet, Umberto turned on the TV)
any forms' lack of inherent meaning (nothing in the meaning of artificial, packaged, sweetened beverage which is naturally affiliated with either the forms pop, coke, or soda; nothing in the form pop which requires it to be associated with that meaning, pop also means 'to hit someone' or 'the sound of hitting someone')
language that no longer has native speakers
letters and sounds
study of language
languages that still have native speakers
the dog, her cat, my hand, a door
very pricey, extremely delighted, faster than a speeding bullet, way too high
would have gotten, should have been driving, does not include adverbs: will never again take her eyes off the road (will take)
from my mother, under the warm blanket, from Richie, with him, along the, busy, six-lane, highway
opposite ends of the scale of language judgement
receives no social stigma
receives social stigma, not standard
include regulations that no native speaker had to formally learn in a classroom, assume you have knowledge of at least one language, explain language regulations like "adjectives come before their nouns" and "objects come after their verbs" as well as supplying a limited vocabulary and exercises to practice, if you only used the information in this to help children learn their first language, it would not be enough
presenting speech by putting marks on a page
Which came first: language or writing?
Is writing a human invention?
written spelling symbols, <>
What are orthographic symbols and how are they represented?
represent spoken sounds, [ ]
What are phonetic symbols, and how are they represented?
a particular sound connected to some specific meaning, <gl> associated with some terms for light and seeing in English (glow, glisten, gleam, glance, glimmer), but also words with no vision or light connection (glamour, glaze, glory, glad, glee)
Are vowels or consonants more likely to change?
when acoustic qualities grow more similar, the vowels are perceived as the same vowel
the counterpart to reference meaning. the connection between language and social groups. many lexical items are associated with social groups or certain social contexts, and these social connections are part of those lexical items' meanings. (automobile, wheels, and whip can all have the same reference meaning but have different _________ meanings)
the scientific study of sounds
how the sounds are produced in the mouth
degree of constriction in the vocal tract
What is the difference between vowels and consonants?
voiced/voiceless, place, sonorants/obstuents
What are three qualities of consonants?
have more of a ringing quality, include both vowels and consonants, [l] [n] [w]
do not ring, [t] in tide, the [s] in <side>
Many words in most languages are a mixture of _________________ and ____________________ (one pronunciation of <buttons>)
manner of articulation
the how in the way consonant sounds are produced. How the tongue, jaw, and throat move when making consonant sounds determines this. stops are a different manner than liquids
give us voice
What do vocal folds do?
What is the difference between voiced and voiceless sounds?
side-view of the mouth
What does the vowel map represent?
The Great Vowel Shift
What was the change that eliminated long and short vowel distinctions?
height, advancement, tense/lax
What qualities distinguish vowels from each other in English?
when the words cot and caught are pronounced the same, the merger of these two vowel sounds [a], half open o
a natural class of vowel sounds with no moving articulators.
Does every language have every human language sound?
Two different words that differ by one sound, highlight the contrasts native speakers of a language use to distinguish one sound from another, figure out what sounds make a difference in meaning
What are minimal pairs, and how are they useful?
a puff of air, key quality in distinguishing , <till> from <dill>, [tun] and [tim], voiceless alveolar stop [t]
<leaves fall> for leaves, the L sound will probably be in the front of the mouth, [l]
<leaves fall> for fall, the L sound will probably be in the back of the mouth
back vowels, central vowels, front vowels, where in the mouth the sound is produced
combine stops and fricatives, first and last sounds in church and judge
area where several sounds are produced, including the first sounds in tea, dee, sea, zee, knee, Leigh, and maybe reef, from the back of your upper teeth right up until the palatal region
the area where you would pronounce the first sounds in she and chap
The __________ sounds happen in front of their ___________ counterparts
the sounds involve both lips, as in the first sounds in pat and bat
have a more restricted passageway
comes from friction, when two things rub together, friction is not between two solids, but involves flowing air, most English varieties have 9, but some contain 10 (f, v)
consonant glides from one place in the mouth to another, the least restricted manner
the space between your vocal folds in your larynx
uh-oh, produced when the glottis snaps shut, stopping the air, words are often pronounced with glottal stops where the <t>s are written
the last area down the vocal tract for English
high vowels, mid vowels, and low vowels, absolute highness or lowness of any particular vowel between speakers does not matter
when different words sound the same, can be found in all the world's languages (right, rite, write, wright)
the phonological process in which certain sounds may be added to a word: the [ p ] is sometimes inserted in the world hamster
a natural class of consonant sounds formed by air flowing over the tongue placed between the teeth
a natural class of consonant sounds made by pushing air through the constriction of the top teeth and the bottom lip
the upper cartilaginous part of the respiratory tract containing the vocal folds and the glottis
a quality of vowel sounds pronounced with the tongue and jaw muscles relatively relaxed in comparison with tense pronunciations, closer to the center of the vowel space
a natural class of consonant of sonorant sounds characterized by loose constriction in the oral cavity so that the air flows out of the mouth
two words that differ in form by one contrasting sound
a natural class of sonorant consonant sounds produced by the passage of air through the nose rather than the mouth
the non-ringing sounds that obstruct more air than sonorants, such as the [ t ] in tile. the natural classes of stops, fricatives, and affricates make these up
the written letters. angled brackets are used to distinguish these from other kinds of symbols, <lab>
a distinctive quality of vowel sounds determined by their placement as being closer towards the center of the vowel map or more on the edge, with those vowels closer to the edge of the map being tense vowels and those closer to the center being lax vowels
the written representation of a spoken sound. these are shown in square braquets
place of articulation
the location in the vocal tract where consonant sounds are produced. the lips are this for bilabial consonants like [ b ]
the most direct meaning for a memorized set of sounds in the lexicon. Many people refer to this as the dictionary meaning. this meaning is distinct from social meaning. necklace- a string-like piece of jewelry worn around the neck
a natural class of ringing sounds that obstruct the air flow less than obstruents. (The [ l ] in lip) made up of four other natural classes: liquids, nasals, glides, and vowels
a natural class of sounds produced with complete constriction of the airway in the vocal tract
a quality of vowel sounds pronounced with the muslces relatively constricted. located closer to the edges of vowel space than lax vowels
a natural class of sounds formed at the back of the roof of the mouth, behind the palatal region but in front of the pharyngeal region
the two flaps of tissue within the larynx that gives us voice. voiced sounds have more vibrations. the voiceless sounds have few vibrations. the glottis is the gap between these things.
the airway associated with the production of speech, consisting of the throat, the mount, and the nasal cavity
voice of articulation
the binary choice between the vocal folds vibrating or not. this is one of the primary characteristics distinguishing types of consonants
a quality of sounds made with vibration of the vocal folds
a quality of sounds, in English usually consonant sounds, made with little vibration of the vocal folds
a sonorant sounds produced with uninterrupted airflow in the vocal tract, less constricted passageway than consonants
a map that locates where a vowel is produced in the mouth. this space is divided into regions much the same way a geographic map can be ordered by longitude and latitude.
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