HRMN Test 1
Terms in this set (44)
Human Resources are often IMPLICIT because ...
1. Hard to measure - NOT the simple aggregate of head counts
2. Hard to manage - EE engagement in the job depends on EE's motivation, satisfaction, energy, etc.
3. Hard to model - performance depends on lots of internal and external factors
How Do Great Organizations Manage Human Resources?
1. Selecting the RIGHT people (not the most talented people) who has the fit
2. Empower your people to make decisions and more flexibly decide the direction they want to take
3. Creating conditions where people can feel psychologically connected with the company so they are intrinsically motivated to do their job
Basic Roles of HR
1. Administrative Role (paperwork, procedural issues, etc.)
2. Operational Role (employment planning and hiring, compensating, performance appraisal, training and development
3. Strategic Role (partnering with operational/functional managers to measure and reward engagement, and understand the needs of EEs, involve in corporate strategic planning)
1. HR controls "IN" but not "OUT"
2. HR bad at BRANDING themselves
3. HR not talk in NUMBERS (Biggest problem of HR)
4. HR not the favorite of CEOs
5. HR often not involved in strategic planning (therefore often play as "firefighters", not "angel investors")
becomes the most important domain of knowledge for HR professionals 10 years from now.
From "Compass" to "GPS"
a. HR should not be about reacting to problems any more
b. HR should PROACTIVELY inform the management of the strengths,
weakness, opportunities, and threats of organizational human capital
From "Secretary" to "Analyst"
a. HR is not about "personnel management" any more
b. HR needs to talk in NUMBERS
From "Power Holder" to "Friend"
a. HR is not about commanding and controlling any more
b. HR needs to truly understand - and then reflect to the management
team - the needs and VOICE of employees
Two primary outputs from job analysis
job description and job specification
Statement of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) of a job to be performed
Statement of the needed knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) of the person who is to perform the job
The process of obtaining information about jobs by determining what the duties, tasks, or activities of jobs are.
HR managers use the data to develop job descriptions and job specifications that are the basis for employee performance appraisal and development.
The ultimate purpose of job analysis is to improve organizational performance and productivity.
Directly observe job incumbents performing the job duties, work sample or job segments.
• Can also be observed indirectly via video or audiotape:
---- Hazardous jobs (airline pilot, surgeon, construction).
---- High-risk jobs (nuclear power plant).
• Best when job/task is repetitive and short cycle.
• Good for manual jobs and tasks
• Not good for jobs and tasks that require creative thinking
•Description of daily activities maintained for a period of time (Calendar, day planner)
• Best when job or task is non-repetitive or long cycle.
• Good for creative or "thinking" jobs/tasks.
• Requires great discipline on diary-keeper's part.
• Accuracy may be questionable
• Individual or group interviews:
--- Job incumbents.
--- Former job holders.
Subject matter experts (SMEs).
• Generates "deep" information:
Qualitative data is rich.
• Time-consuming and expensive.
• Lacks anonymity.
• Subject to interviewer's skill level.
• Most commonly used method.
• Structured form or checklist.
• Paper and pencil or computer-based.
• Standardized in content and format.
• Good for accessing large numbers of responses.
• Save money and confidential
• Downside is possible deficiency of questions/content areas assessed.
• Assumes incumbent literacy and intelligence.
• For best result, use multiple methods.
• Balance time and cost constraints.
• Balance the strengths and weaknesses of each method.
• No magic formula to determine how many methods are ideal or which methods to combine for a given job.
• Ideally, obtain both quantitative and qualitative data.
Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT)
A systematic occupational classification structure based on interrelationships of job tasks and requirements.
Contains standardized and comprehensive descriptions of twenty-thousand jobs.
• O*NET Database
A online database of all DOT occupations plus an update of over 3,500 additional DOT occupations.
Data are collected and published continuously.
Controlling the Accuracy of Job Information
• Factors influencing the accuracy of job information
Self-reporting exaggerations and omissions by employees and managers
Collecting information from a representative sample of employees
Capturing all important job information
Length of job cycle exceeding observation period
Lack of access to job site for personal observation
Lack of familiarity with the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job
Ongoing changes in the job
Indicates job duties and organizational level
Provides status to the employee.
Indicates what the duties of the job entails.
Indicates the relative level occupied by its holder in the organizational hierarchy.
Distinguishes job from all other jobs
Essential Functions (Job Duties)
Indicate responsibilities entailed and results to be accomplished
Job Identification Section
Departmental location of the job
Person to whom the jobholder reports
Date the job description was last revised
Payroll or code number
Number of employees performing the job
Number of employees in the department where the job is located
O*NET code number.
"Statement of the Job"
Statements of job duties that:
Are arranged in order of importance that indicate the weight, or value, of each duty; weight of a duty is gauged by the percentage of time devoted to it.
Stress the responsibilities that duties entail and the results to be accomplished.
Indicate the tools and equipment used by the employee in performing the job.
Should comply with law by listing only the essential functions of the job to be performed.
Personal qualifications an individual must possess in order to perform the duties and responsibilities
The skills required to perform the job:
- Education or experience, specialized training, personal traits or abilities, interpersonal skills or specific behavioral attributes, and manual dexterities.
The physical demands of the job:
- Walking, standing, reaching, lifting, talking, and the condition and hazards of the physical work environment
Problems with Job Descriptions & Specifications
1. If poorly written, they provide little guidance to the jobholder.
2. They are not always updated as job duties or specifications change.
3. They may violate the law by containing specifications not related to job success.
4. They can limit the scope of activities of the jobholder, reducing organizational flexibility.
Writing Job Descriptions & Specifications
• Create statements that:
-- Are terse, direct, and simply worded; eliminate unnecessary words or phrases.
--- Describe duties with a present-tense verb, the implied subject being the employee performing the job.
--- Use "occasionally" to describe duties performed once in a while and "may" for duties performed only by some workers on the job.
--- State the specific performance requirements of a job based on valid job-related criteria.
Internal promotion (most commonly seen in organizations)
Job rotation - refreshed motivation
Leadership development programs (takes time but VITAL for long-term organizational success)
• Campus recruiting (also promote corporate image)
• Employee referral program
• Internet recruiting (saves time but just an initial tool)
• Professional/Career websites (more and more popular)
• HR consulting firms (cost money but can be very effective for senior-level positions)
• Internet job boards - less popular today
• Career/professional websites - most effect
• Employer website - least expensive w/ very helpful background information about the company
The process of choosing individuals with qualifications needed to fill jobs in an organization.
Organizations need qualified employees to succeed.
"Hire hard, manage easy."
"Good training will not make up for bad selection."
Fitting a person to the right job.
Matching the knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) of people to the characteristics of jobs (tasks, duties and responsibilities-TDRs).
Benefits of person-job fit:
Higher employee performance
Lower turnover and absenteeism
The congruence between individuals and organizational factors.
Realistic Job Preview
The process through which a job applicant receives an accurate picture of the job.
Prevents the development of unrealistic job expectations in new employees.
Helps avoid truth-in-hiring lawsuits
General Mental Ability Testing
Minority groups tend to score lower on tests
Requires business necessity defense and validation.
• Personality Testing
Explains very little about actual job outcomes.
Questions are developed from the answers to previous questions.
Possibility of not obtaining needed information.
Information obtained may not be not job-related or comparable to that obtained from other applicants.
An interview designed to create anxiety and put pressure on an applicant to see how the person responds.
Occurs when an employer fails to check the background of an employee who injures someone.
Employers are liable for employees' actions.
Fair Credit Reporting Act
Requires disclosure of a credit check.
Requires written consent of applicant.
Requires copy of report be given to the applicant.
American With Disabilities Act (ADA)
Prohibits pre-employment medical exams.
Prohibits rejecting persons for disabilities or asking disability-related questions until after a conditional job offer is made.
Use of drug testing in the selection process is increasing.
Tests must be monitored to protect integrity of results.