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67 terms

Chapter 5

STUDY
PLAY
in a later modification of the classic bobo doll experiment, the children who saw a model beat up the doll and then get rewarded showed aggression toward the doll. Which of the following statements is true about the other children, who saw the model get punished rather than rewared?
They did not beat up the doll until offered a reward to demostrate what the model had done.
when ever Vernon comes home too late on Saturday night his parents refuse to give him his weekly allowance. Vernon's parents are using what technique to modify his behavior?
punishment by removal
after a child hood filled with cavities, kyle has an active dislike of the dentst's drill. His tendency to become anxious when hearing a similar-sound noise is termed
stimulus generalization
A teacher has decided to give caught being good tickets to her students when they behave according to class rules. this teacher also reards students with gold stars each time they improve their math speed. this teacher is using
Operant conditiong
Carla was bitten by a dog when she was a toddler. She's older now, but still backs up in fear when ever a dog approaches her. This is an example of
conditioned emotional response
in Seligman's study on dogs, the dogs that were not conditioned to fear the tone pg 199-200
jumped over the fence when the shock started
a naturally occuring stimylus that leads to an involuntary (reflex) response is a/an
unconditioned stimulus
learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful is called
latent learning
in his study of rats in mazes, Tolman concluded that the rats in the group that didn't receive reinforcement for solving the maze had
learned the maze by wandering around in it and formimg a cognitive map
in his classical conditioning experiment, Pavlov's dogs were conditioned to salivate when they
heard the sound of the metronome
the law of effect states if an action is followed by a pleasurable consquence, it is likely to
be repeated
_____ is the disapperance or weaking of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning) or the removal of the reinforcer( in operant conditioning)
extinction
in an ________________ the occcurrence of reinforcement is more predictable and therefor the individual being reinforced is more likely to adjust his response to the timimg of the reinforcement
fixed interval schedule of reinforcement
is learning behavior by watching a model perform that behavior
observational learning
what are the two kinds of behavior that all organisms are capable of
involuntary and voluntary
changes such as an ihncrease in height or the size of the brain are called
maturation
Pavlov initially set out to study his dogs
digestive systems
which psychologist is best known for working with children and a bobo doll rto study whether aggressive behavior is learned by watching others be aggressive
Albert Bandura
A recent study suggests a link between spanking and
aggression in children
_________ pioneered the empirical study of the basic principles of classical conditioning.
Ivan Pavlov
Which of the following is one of Bandura's elements of observational learning
memory
______ is the classical conditioning of a relex response or emotion by watching the reaction of another person.
Vicarious Conditioning
the learning/performance distinction is a kind of
latent learning
Aggression in children is _______ violence on TV.
positively correlated with
The brelands determined that most Skinnerian behaviorists made the false assumption that
all response are equally able to be conditioned any stimulus
Punishment is more difficult than reinforcement because
it is difficult to get rid of a well established response
After a lengthy period during which UCS was not applied, Pavlov's Dogs stopped responding to the metronome. If a weaker conditioned response to the metronome occurred at some point after this, it would be a demonstration of
Spontaneous recovery
For classical conditioning to be successful, the CS must
come before the UCS
Kohler believed that Sultan the chimp had solved the problem of reaching the banana
by having sudden perception of relationships
Severe punishment may encourage
lying to avoid punishment
In defining learning, ____ refers to the fact that when people learn anything, some part of their brain is physically changed to record what they've learned, and that change remains even if the behavior doesn't.
relatively permanent
A behavior is more resistant to extinction if it is
partially reinforced
The neutral stimulus must be paired with the un conditioned stimulus ______ in order to result in successful conditioning.
several times
Observational learning cannot take place if the learner does not first
pay attention to what is happening
In negative reinforcement , a(n) _______ is removed; in punishment by removal an ____ is removed.
unpleasant thing ; pleasant/desirable thing
Sammy and his friends are watching animated fight scences on television. Bandura's findings in the Bobo doll experiment, it seems likely that later, at play and his friends will
imitate many of the violent actions they witnessed on tv
_____ is an example of punishment by removal
Grounding a teenager
The scientist conducted research to establish the theory known as cognitive perspective
Robert Rescorla
one of the first psychologists to conduct studies in an attempt to explain human behavior was
John Watson
_______ believed that classical conditioning occurred because the CS became a substitute for the UCS when paired closely together in time..
Pavlov
"Little Albert" acquired a conditioned emotional response to the rat when its presentation was coupled with
a loud noise
In his classical conditioning experiment, Pavlov's dogs were conditioned to salivate when they
heard the sound of the metronome
The cognitive perspective of classical conditioning involves
the mental activity of consciously expecting something else to occur
In Tolman's study on rats, the second group, who did not get reinforced with food until the tenth day, then
began to solve the maze immediately
When a behavior is reinforced according to the number of responses required, it is
on a ratio schedule of reinforcement
Kohler determined that insight
cannot be gained through trial- and-error learning alone.
it is believed that animals revert quickly to instinctual behaviors when the new tasks they are learning have a strong association with
obtaining food
the response that is given to the conditioned stimulus is not usually quite as strong as the original unconditioned response,
but it is essentially the same response.
In Pavlov's studies, the salivation of dogs in response to food in their mouths is the
unconditioned response
Which of the following would be considered negative reinforcement?
a child
Three- year-old Ellie sees her big brother go across the monkey bars. Ellie tries to do the monkey bars but her arms are not strong enough to hang or long enough to reach the next bar. According to Bandura, Ellie is lacking which element of observational learning ?
imitation
Which of the following is an example of maturation ?
One - year-old baby Jesse could not walk two months ago but now he can
One of B.F. Skinner's famous experiments involved
teaching rats to learn how to obtain food
Which of the following individuals believed that cognition was an important part of behavior?
not bf skinner pg 197
Following a response with the removal of something unpleasant is called
negative reinforcement
One of the first psychologists to conduct studies in an attempt to explain human behavior was
John Watson
In a variable ratio schedule of reinforcement
the number of required responses changes often
Throndike developed the _____ which said in part that if an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated
law of effect
In his classical conditioning experiment Pavlov's dogs were conditioned to salivate when they
heard the sound of the metronome
In Kohler's experiment, Sultan the chimp first used just one stick that was lying in his cage to rake the banana into the the cage, and then learned to fit two sticks to together. this was an example of
insight
In conditioning the concept of shaping is achieved by reinforcing
consistent punishment
an unconditioned stimulus is always followed by a(n)
unconditioned response
Further studies that followed Kohler's work with chimpanzees
have found support for the concept of animal insight
Experiments have shown that laboratory rats will experience conditioned taste averdion for a food they swallow _______ before becoming nauseated
...
Birds who find their food by sight will avoid any object or insect that simply looks like the one that made them sick. This is a result of
biological preparedness
In conditioning, the concept of shaping is achieved by reinforcing
successive approximations
The learning/performance distinction is demonstrated by
the aggressive behavior by the children to the Bobo doll in Bandura's study