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History 102 Ch 16 and 18
Terms in this set (119)
The protestant reformation took place when?
The 3 European nations during the 16th century that began to slowly develop strong central government were ____, _____, and ____.
England, France, and Spain
The ___ and ____ were stronger than the nobles.
King and Queen
___ was and Italian man who wrote the book The Prince.
The Prince was a book about what?
How to get and keep power
Niccolo Machiavelli says there are two ways to get power, what are they?
make people love you or fear you
What were some social changes in the early 16th century?
Nobles held tightly to power, more free peasants, and towns and cities consisted of patricians, shopkeepers, guilds, and unemployed people
The first book printed was ___.
The Guteburg bible
Who wrote the Gutenberg bible?
Johannes Gutenburg was ____.
Italy and Germany did not become unified nations until the late __ century.
Knowledge was easier to spread around because of the ____.
____ believed that people could become better by using reason. They wanted to help each other and the world around them.
_______ was a Dutch Humanist. He thought everyone should learn Latin and read the bible.
Name 2 worldly popes:
Julius II and Leo X
___ and ____ were very important during the Protestant Reformation.
Indulgences and Relics
____ was based on the idea of purgatory. It was an agreement from the priest that said you or someone you love would not have to stay in purgatory for a certain amount of time.
What was one way to get an indulgence?
donating to the church
____ was any part from a saint like a book or item of clothing that reminds you of a saint.
____ was quite possibly one of the most influential people of the second millennium.
Martin Luther was _____.
Where was Martin Luther from?
____ was Roman Catholic and Catholic priest.
How did Martin Luther become part of the Church?
He became a priest because he got caught in a thunder storm and promised to God if he survived he would join the church.
Martin Luther was a professor at ____.
The university of Wittenburg
Martin Luther was also a ___.
Martin Luther arrived at the idea of what?
Justification by faith alone, he didn't think you had to do good deeds
What is the ninety-five theses?
95 theses that Martin Luther wrote on why he didn't agree with the Catholic church
When was Martin Luther excommunicated?
Martin Luther looked for assurance of ___. He didn't think he was good enough and thought God didn't like him.
What happened in order for Martin Luther to become excommunicated?
Charles V was the holy Roman emperor in Northern Italy at the time. He was a devout Catholic. He said he wanted Luther to go to a private meeting called the Diet Worms. They asked him if he wrote bad things about the church and Luther replied yes. They asked him if he was sorry and he said no. So they then excommunicated him.
The protestant reformation pretty much began because why?
Because of Luther's excommunication
The prince is also called what?
The elector of Saxony
What were some words of the prince?
"A mighty fortress is our God."
Luther taught what was called ___.
The reformed church
Luther believed what about Jesus?
He believed in the real presence of Jesus, not just symbolic.
What were the 2 sacraments Luther believed were worth keeping?
Baptism and The Last Supper
Luther believed in mass, but didn't think what was necessary?
Many ____ became Lutherans.
What new religious services replaced the Catholic mass?
bible reading, preaching the word of God, and song
Who wrote the Institutes of the Christian Religion?
____ is the belief that before a baby is born God decided whether he or she is going to hell.
Doctrine of Predestination
___ believed in the Doctrine of Predestination.
John Calvin was a strong religious leader of ___.
France consisted of the ____.
England consisted of the _____.
____ wanted the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon because he wanted a son and his wife was not able to have children. He then broke away from the Catholic Church.
King Henry VIII of England
King Henry VIII's second marriage was to ___.
King Henry appointed ___ in 1533.
Thomas Cranmer as archbishop of Canterbury
___ stated that in England the King was the supreme ruler of the church instead of the pope.
Act of Supremacy
____ was King Henry's son by his 3rd wife. He became King when his father died.
King Edward VI of England
____ was also a protestant and favored the Puritans, but he was head of the church of England (origin of the episcopal church).
King Edward VI
____ was also known as Bloody Mary.
Queen Mary of England
____ was the daughter of King Henry and Catherine. She was a devout Roman Catholic. Her reign began when her brother died.
Queen Mary of England
___ was the most famous person of the catholic reformation. He was the leader of the Jesuits and was known for missionary activity and education.
____ means people getting into high positions that they didn't deserve because of people they know.
____ worked to reform the papacy. He had priests actually go to the places they were supposed to be. He worked to stop the corruption of the church.
Pope Paul III
____'s purpose was to bring people back into the faith, make the catholic faith better and to fight Martin Luther's teaching.
Council of Trent
____ said that all sacraments were valid and they disagreed with Luther's teachings. They met several times between 1545 and 1563.
Council of Trent
From the mid 16th century to the mid 17th century Europe was a mess. The catholics and protestants fought over what?
whether or not the bread and wine were a real representation of Jesus or not
Europe experienced religious wars, declining population, and hysteria over ___.
Name 3 of Shakespeare's plays:
Romeo and Juliet
The Huguenots were ____.
____ ended the French war's religion. He was a King and he was a Huguenot. When he became king he was baptized as a Roman Catholic.
Henry of Navarre
____ ruled France from 1564-1210
Henry of Navarre
____ gave limited rights to protestants. It was a law stating that all protestants had only 20 cities where they could worship freely. He gave rights to the protestants even though he was Roman Catholic.
Edict of Nantes
____ was the son of Charles V and married Bloody Mary.
Phillip II of Spain
___ was a strict catholic and strong King.
Phillip II of Spain
Phillip II inherited ___.
The ___ and ___ (people of the Netherlands) rebelled against Phillip II because they were protestant and liked John Calvin.
Holland and Dutch
Today the Netherlands are ____.
They went to war and finally in 1609 they had a truce, which was when ___ began.
the modern Dutch nation
___ was a German nobleman who lived in Europe and worked for the King of Spain.
William I of Orange
What did William I of Orange do?
He was sent to the Netherlands to put down the revolt and when he got there he changed sides. He thought the Dutch were being mistreated and helped them rebel against Phillip.
____ was Mary's younger half sister. She ruled for about 45 years.
Queen Elizabeth I
____ stated that Queen Elizabeth was going to be the governor of the church instead of the ruler.
New Act of Supremacy
___ was Protestant and did not kill anyone because of religion.
Queen Elizabeth I
____ was protestant and moderate.
Church of England
What was the Defeat of the Spanish Armada?
They came to invade England at the order of Phillip II. The Spanish Armada was defeated largely because of bad weather. The English became proud of themselves because of the defeat of the Spanish Armada.
The English said that the storm had been the ___ showing that God favored their side.
___ was the rivalry between France, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire.
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' war lasted from ___ to ___.
What was the Thirty Years' war?
France took the side of the Protestants for political reasons.
____ ended the Thirty Years' War.
Treaty of Westphalia
_____ recognized Roman Catholicism, Calvinism and Lutheranism as legitimate religions and rulers got to decide which one their subjects followed.
Treaty of Westphalia
As a result of the Treaty of Westphalia, the ___ got their official freedom from Spain.
What were some changes in warfare between 1560-1650?
Increased use of firearms and canons
better disciplined and trained armies
Large standing armies (conscription)
The ____ dynasty of China lasted from 1368-1644.
The next dynasty after the Ming dynasty was the ____ dynasty.
____ conquered China in 1644.
Why did Ming dynasty decline?
2 great rulers of China:
Kangxi and Qianlong
administrative positions shared equally with Chinese and Manchus
What was a very unsuccessful peasant revolt that happened right after the reign of Qianlong
White Lotus Rebellion
Oda Nobunaga,Toyotomi Hidogoshi, Tokugawa a legusa
3 great unifiers that strengthened the central government of Japan after a period of anarchy:
The ___ lasted until Japan decided to become a modern industrial nation.
China influenced ____ and ______.
Korea and Japan
____ was known as the hermit kingdom because it was isolated from Europeans.
The Yi dynasty was founded by ____.
_____ was invaded twice in the late 16th century. The invasions were not useful, but they were disruptive and damaging.
____ invaded and forced Korea to pay tribute to the Qing empire of China.
_____ weakened nobles because you didn't have to be wealthy to hold a good job.
____ increased use of Chinese institutions and culture to strengthen the government.
Le Than Tong
Civil war began when?
During the Nguyen Dynasty the ___ family changed the name of the country to Vietnam.
Name 5 countries in East Asia:
Korea, China, Vietnam, Japan and Cambodia
____ created Qing dynasty.
____ aggravated Kangxi.
If you were sick of Ming dynasty you could complain about what?
High taxes for government, rich crops, people hungry, rulers weak, peasants unhappy
Kangxi was contemporary to who?
Briefly describe Japans geography:
Japan consists of several thousands of islands, Japan's closest neighbors are Korea, Russia and China. The Sea of Japan separates the Asian continent from the Japanese archipelago.
____ family of Vietnam were rivals of the Nguyen family.
Ly family, sometimes spelled Le
Name 3 kinds of catholic priests:
Franciscans, Jesuits and Domincans
2 paragraphs describing Martin Luther:
Martin Luther was Quite possibly one of the most influential people of the second millennium. He was from the area known as Saxony, Germany and became a Roman Catholic priest because of his promise to God after surviving a storm. Luther was also a monk and often looked for assurance of Salvation. Luther believed God did not like him very much.
Although Luther was a Roman Catholic, he did not believe in quite everything they preached, which then led to Luther writing Ninety-five Theses, which consisted on 95 reasons he did not agree with the church. He only believed 2 sacraments were worth keeping. Luther's ideas quickly began to spread across Germany and many German rulers became Lutheran. New religious services then replaced the catholic mass. Although some didn't believe in Luther, causing him to become excommunicated in 1521.
is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate.
Confucianism, a religion of optimistic humanism, has had a monumental impact upon the life, social structure, and political philosophy of China
Mandate of Heaven:
The Mandate of Heaven is an ancient Chinese belief/theory and philosophical idea that heaven granted emperors the right to rule based on their ability to govern well, appropriately and fairly.
a Chinese philosophy based on the writings of Lao-tzu, advocating humility and religious piety.
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