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46 terms

biology

chapter 6
STUDY
PLAY
Chemical reactions that require oxygen are called
_____ while those that do not require oxygen are considered _____.
aerobic ... anaerobic
Glucose ... carbon dioxide
_____ is used as food and _____ is produced as a waste in the overall process of cellular respiration
Immediately after completion of the citric acid cycle,
most of the usable energy from the original glucose molecule is in the form of _____.
NADH
The function of cellular respiration is to
extract usable energy from glucose
If humans did not breathe in O2, we would not
make enough ATP to meet our energy requirements
Most of the ATP produced in cellular respiration
comes from __________
the flow of electrons across the inner mitochondrial membrane
in the cytosol
During respiration in a eukaryotic cell, reactions of glycolysis occur
pump H+ through a membrane
The energy given up by electrons as they move through the electron transport chain is used to ________
In cellular respiration, _____ is oxidized and _____ is reduced
glucose ... oxygen
are bound to NAD+ to be sent through electron transport
Most of the electrons released from glucose by cell respiration _______
What is the name of the process in which glucose is converted to pyruvic acid?
glycolysis
Aerobic metabolism always requires _____.
oxygen
What is the name of the process in which pyruvic
acid is converted to lactic acid?
fermentation
Sports physiologists at an Olympic training center
wanted to monitor athletes to determine at what point their muscles were functioning anaerobically. They could do this by checking for a buildup of _____.
lactic acid
During aerobic respiration, molecular oxygen (O2)
is used ________
at the end of the electron transport chain to accept electrons and form H2O
In eukaryotes, the electron transport chain is a
series of electron carrier molecules embedded in which organelle?
the mitochondria
Marathon runners have mostly slow-twitch muscle
fibers, whereas sprinters have mostly fast-twitch fibers; their muscle fibers perform differently because __________.
they use different processes for making ATP
_____ is a chemical process that uses light energy
from the sun to build organic molecules.
Photosynthesis
Which of the following is an autotroph?
magnolia tree
Because plants are involved in photosynthesis, they
are called _____.
producers
The chemical ingredients needed for
photosynthesis are _____ and _____.
carbon dioxide ... water
_____ is used as food and _____ is produced as a
waste in the overall process of cellular respiration.
Glucose ... carbon dioxide
The main function of cellular respiration is
making ATP to power cell activities
Aerobic metabolism always requires _____.
oxygen
Which of the following describes cellular respiration?
Redox reactions are involved in cellular respiration.
In redox reactions, electrons need to be shuttled from one molecule to another. Which of the following statements is true?
Electrons are added to NAD+, which then carries the electrons to another electron acceptor
Where in a cell does glycolysis occur?
cytosol
The net gain of ATP for each glucose molecule that
enters glycolysis, in the absence of oxygen, is approximately _________
2 ATPs
Which of the following "escorts" acetic acid
produced from pyruvic acid into the first reaction of the citric acid cycle?
CoA
A glucose molecule is completely broken down in
glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, but these two processes yield only a few ATPs. Where is the rest of the energy that the cell can obtain from the glucose molecule?
in NADH and FADH2
An important end product of cellular respiration is _____
water
In eukaryotes, the electron transport chain is a
series of electron carrier molecules embedded in which organelle?
the mitochondria
The electrons removed from glucose in cellular
respiration end up in _____
water
Most of the ATP produced during cellular respiration
occurs __________.
from activity of the ATP synthase machine
Organisms that are poisoned by oxygen and must
live in very low oxygen regions are called _____.
anaerobes
Which of the following would challenge A. V. Hill's
conclusions about the effect of lactic acid on muscle fatigue?
The effect Hill demonstrated does not occur at human body temperature.
Which of the following is a group of organisms that
thrive in an anaerobic environment?
microorganisms
Which one of the following is considered the oldest
mechanism to generate ATP?
glycolysis
the purpose of cellular respiration
to form ATP
what is ATP
universal energy currency
how many ATP in total
38ATP
how many genes in human body
approx. 25000
Oxidation
loss of electron
Reduction
gain of electrons
aerobic respiration
glucose+6oxygern---)6carbondioxide+6water+energy
coenzymes
intermidate accepter