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chapter 6

Chemical reactions that require oxygen are called
_____ while those that do not require oxygen are considered _____.

aerobic ... anaerobic

Glucose ... carbon dioxide

_____ is used as food and _____ is produced as a waste in the overall process of cellular respiration

Immediately after completion of the citric acid cycle,
most of the usable energy from the original glucose molecule is in the form of _____.


The function of cellular respiration is to

extract usable energy from glucose

If humans did not breathe in O2, we would not

make enough ATP to meet our energy requirements

Most of the ATP produced in cellular respiration
comes from __________

the flow of electrons across the inner mitochondrial membrane

in the cytosol

During respiration in a eukaryotic cell, reactions of glycolysis occur

pump H+ through a membrane

The energy given up by electrons as they move through the electron transport chain is used to ________

In cellular respiration, _____ is oxidized and _____ is reduced

glucose ... oxygen

are bound to NAD+ to be sent through electron transport

Most of the electrons released from glucose by cell respiration _______

What is the name of the process in which glucose is converted to pyruvic acid?


Aerobic metabolism always requires _____.


What is the name of the process in which pyruvic
acid is converted to lactic acid?


Sports physiologists at an Olympic training center
wanted to monitor athletes to determine at what point their muscles were functioning anaerobically. They could do this by checking for a buildup of _____.

lactic acid

During aerobic respiration, molecular oxygen (O2)
is used ________

at the end of the electron transport chain to accept electrons and form H2O

In eukaryotes, the electron transport chain is a
series of electron carrier molecules embedded in which organelle?

the mitochondria

Marathon runners have mostly slow-twitch muscle
fibers, whereas sprinters have mostly fast-twitch fibers; their muscle fibers perform differently because __________.

they use different processes for making ATP

_____ is a chemical process that uses light energy
from the sun to build organic molecules.


Which of the following is an autotroph?

magnolia tree

Because plants are involved in photosynthesis, they
are called _____.


The chemical ingredients needed for
photosynthesis are _____ and _____.

carbon dioxide ... water

_____ is used as food and _____ is produced as a
waste in the overall process of cellular respiration.

Glucose ... carbon dioxide

The main function of cellular respiration is

making ATP to power cell activities

Aerobic metabolism always requires _____.


Which of the following describes cellular respiration?

Redox reactions are involved in cellular respiration.

In redox reactions, electrons need to be shuttled from one molecule to another. Which of the following statements is true?

Electrons are added to NAD+, which then carries the electrons to another electron acceptor

Where in a cell does glycolysis occur?


The net gain of ATP for each glucose molecule that
enters glycolysis, in the absence of oxygen, is approximately _________

2 ATPs

Which of the following "escorts" acetic acid
produced from pyruvic acid into the first reaction of the citric acid cycle?


A glucose molecule is completely broken down in
glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, but these two processes yield only a few ATPs. Where is the rest of the energy that the cell can obtain from the glucose molecule?

in NADH and FADH2

An important end product of cellular respiration is _____


In eukaryotes, the electron transport chain is a
series of electron carrier molecules embedded in which organelle?

the mitochondria

The electrons removed from glucose in cellular
respiration end up in _____


Most of the ATP produced during cellular respiration
occurs __________.

from activity of the ATP synthase machine

Organisms that are poisoned by oxygen and must
live in very low oxygen regions are called _____.


Which of the following would challenge A. V. Hill's
conclusions about the effect of lactic acid on muscle fatigue?

The effect Hill demonstrated does not occur at human body temperature.

Which of the following is a group of organisms that
thrive in an anaerobic environment?


Which one of the following is considered the oldest
mechanism to generate ATP?


the purpose of cellular respiration

to form ATP

what is ATP

universal energy currency

how many ATP in total


how many genes in human body

approx. 25000


loss of electron


gain of electrons

aerobic respiration



intermidate accepter

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