Upgrade to remove ads
Critical Thinking Ch 3: Deductive, Inductive
In Class Quiz
Terms in this set (28)
an argument in which one reasons from premises that are true to a conclusion that follows necessarily from these premises; if the premises are true then the conclusion
Example: All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal.
an argument which shows that the conclusions are
given the premise(s)
modus ponens (deductive)
If A, then B.
Example: If I have prepared thoroughly for the final exam, then I will do well. I prepared thoroughly for the final exam. Therefore, I will do well on the exam.
affirming the consequent
If A, then B.
modus tollens (deductive)
If A, then B.
Therefore, not A.
If Michael were a really good friend, he would lend me his car for the weekend. Michael refuses to lend me his car for the weekend. Therefore, Michael is
a really good friend.
denying the antecedent
If A, then B.
Therefore, not B.
deductive indicator word test
certainly, definitely, absolutely, conclusively...
inductive indicator word test
probably, likely, it is plausible to suppose that, it is reasonable to assume that...
strict necessity test
an argument either follows with strict logical necessity (deductive) or it does not (inductive)
the principle of charity test
when interpreting an unclear passage, always give the speaker/writer the benefit of the doubt = interpret in in a way most favorable to the arguer
a 3-line argument that includes one hypothetical premise
Ex. If the Zags beat the Huskies, then the Zags will go to the NCAA playoffs. The Zags will beat the Huskies. Therefore, the Zags will go to the playoffs!
aka "Modus Ponens"
three conditional statements that link together:
If A then B.
If B then C.
Therefore, if A then C.
a 3-line argument that includes 'all', 'some', or 'no'.
All oaks are trees. All trees are plants. Therefore, all oaks are plants.
argument by elimination
an argument that logically rules out various possibilities until only one remains
Example: Joe either walked or drove to the basketball game. Joe didn't drive. Therefore, Joe walked.
argument based on mathematics
8 is greater than 4. 4 is greater than 2. Therefore, 8 is greater than 2.
argument from definition
Janelle is a cardiologist. Therefore, Janelle is a doctor. (because a cardiologist means 'heart doctor')
a statement that attributes a characteristic to all or most members of a group
an argument which is claimed to be probably true based upon information about some members of a particular class
a prediction which is defended by reasons
Ex. Most US presidents have been tall. Therefore, the next US president will probably be tall.
argument from authority
an argument which asserts a claim and then supports that claim by citing some authority or witness
Ex. More Americans die of skin cancer than any other cancer. My doctor told me that.
an argument that asserts (or denies) that something caused something else
Ex. I can't log on. The network must be down.
an argument based on statistical evidence
Ex. 83 percent of GU students are Catholic. Mika is a GU student. Therefore, Mika is probably Catholic.
(Actually, it's only 50%!)
argument from analogy
an argument in which the conclusion depends on a comparison/similarity between 2 or more things
Ex. P and Q are similar in respect to properties a, b, and c.
P has been observed to have further property x.
Therefore, Q probably has property x also.
a valid deductive arguement
an argument in which it is impossible for all of the premises to be true and for the conclusion to be false (Important: 'valid' means well reasoned; 'valid' doesn't mean 'true'.)
a sound deductive argument
a deductive argument which is valid and has all true premises
sound deductive argument
an argument which is either invalid or has at least on false premise
a strong inductive argument
a well-reasoned inductive argument in which the conclusion follows probably from the premises (Important: 'strong' means well reasoned; 'strong' doesn't mean 'true'.)
a cogent inductive argument
a inductive argument which is strong and has all true premises
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Critical Thinking Ch 1: Standards, Benef…
Critical Thinking Ch 2: Arguments, Non-A…
Critical Thinking (Chapter 3)
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
CH 3 (Making Sense of Arguments)
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Q Skills 4 R/W Unit 2
Q Skills 4 R/W Unit 3
Q Skills 4, Unit 1
21st Century Communication 2 Unit 6B: Sh…