182 terms

Psychology Final

Attribution theory was designed to account for
how people explain others' behavior.
Most children believe their school is better than the other schools in their town. This best illustrates
in-group bias
Accepting others' opinions about reality is to ________ as the desire to gain approval is to ________.
informational social influence; normative social influence
The belief that those who suffer deserve their fate is expressed in the
After three months of riding the 8:30 bus to work, Cindy has actually started to feel affection for the gruff and scowling old bus driver. Cindy's reaction best illustrates:
mere exposure effect
Which of the following would be most consistent with a GRIT strategy?
nnouncing that defense expenditures will be cut by 5 percent and inviting the enemy to do likewise
Most people are likely to be suprised by the results of Milgram's initial obedience experiment because:
the "teachers" were more obedient than most people would have predicted.
Observing yourself on a videotape is most likely to increase your tendency to attribute your behavior to: Question 8 answers
personality traits
Two classmates ask you to spend a couple of hours helping them prepare for a chemistry test. According to social exchange theory, you would be most likely to help them if: Question 9 answers
you know you would feel terribly guilty for refusing their request.
Social loafing has been found to be especially noticeable among ________ in cultures that value ________
men; individualism
According to the ____________ effect, if you were walking out of the grocery store and slipped on the sidewalk you should expect more help if only one or two people were around than if 5 or 6 people were there.
Fred did very poorly on his last arithmetic test. The tendency to make the fundamental attribution error might lead his sixth-grade teacher to conclude that Fred did poorly because:
he is unmotivated to do well in school
A social trap is a situation in which:
the pursuit of self-interest leads to collective harm
People tend to perceive the members of an outgroup as ________ one another and the members of their ingroup as ________ one another.
similar to; different from
Conformity increased under which of the following conditions in Solomon Asch's studies of conformity? (the line study)
All of the above are correct.
It was found that in Houston, Texas, as the temperature increased, so did homicides. What principle does this support?
Frustration-agression principle
Zimbardo's study was ended early because
The prisoners developed apathy and depression
Natasha and Dimitri have a fulfilling marital relationship because they readily confide their deepest hopes and fears to each other. This best illustrates the value of
We are most likely to experience cognitive dissonance if we feel _______ sense of responsibility for engaging in behaviors of which we personally _______.
a great; disapprove
When a salesperson visits your home and asks you to try a free sample of a cleaning fluid, you agree. When he returns the following week and asks you to purchase an assortment of expensive cleaning products, you make the purchase. The salesperson appears to have made effective use of:
the foot-in-the-door phenomenon
Cameron, a 50-year-old electrician, opens his pay envelope and, to his surprise, finds a pink slip inside indicating that he has been fired from his job. Which phase of the general adaptation syndrome is John most likely experiencing?
alarm reaction
Who is the best example of a Type A personality?
Philip, a competitive, hard-driving corporation president
As you are waiting to be interviewed for a job, your heart rate, body temperature, and breathing rate begin to increase. These physiological changes are produced by activation of the ________ nervous system.
Hans Selye discovered that stressors cause the adrenal cortex to ________ in size, and the thymus gland to ________ in size.
increase; decrease
Nicotine triggers a(n) ________ in anxiety and a(n) ________ in mental alertness.
A loss of perceived control tends to result in:
all of the above are correct
The inner part of the adrenal gland releases _____ and the outer part of the adrenal gland releases _______.
Homeopathy and acupuncture are forms of: Question 8 answers
alternative medicine.
Resistance to stress is greatest during ________ of the GAS.
Phase 2
A psychophysiological illness is a(n):
illness that is not caused by a physical disorder but instead seems linked to stress.
Cassandra's mother told her, "You know you are in love when your heart beats fast and you experience that unique trembling feeling inside", This remark best illustrates the ________ theory of emotion.
Which of the following is an example of biofeedback?
During an emergency, increasing levels of emotional arousal are likely to be accompanied by:
he level of arousal typically associated with optimal performance tends to be ________ on tasks that are ________.
In their dispute over the role of cognition in emotion, both Zajonc and Lazarus agree that:
Which brain area is linked to fear learning?
Philip's physician prescribes a stress management program to help Philip control his headaches. The physician has apparently diagnosed Philip's condition as a ________ illness, rather than a physical disorder.
Compared to men, women are immunologically ________ and they are ________ susceptible to lupus and multiple sclerosis.
stronger; more
A health psychologist would be most likely to conduct research assessing the relationship between
In 1900,______ was the major cause of death in the United States. Today, the major threat to life results from _______.
tuberculosis; heart disease
According to Maslow, our need for ________ must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for ________.
adequate clothing; self-esteem
Jeff, who is 14, engages in rigorous tennis drills or competitive play at least four hours every day because he wants to master the sport and play on one of the best college teams in the country. His goal and behavior best illustrate the concept of:
achievement motivation.
The concept of a set point is relevant to understanding the experience of:
Your psychological feeling of hunger is regulated by one little part of the brain called the __________. It is the same part that helps regulate your sexual libido. See, food and sex are related
Which of the following are not one of the four stages of sex, according to Masters and Johnson?
Refractory Period
What psychological phenomenon occurs when glucose levels are low in our bloodstream?
Flow is characterized by a ________ awareness of self and a ________ awareness of the passing of time.
Foolish conformity to peer pressure is most likely to be motivated by ________ needs.
The level of serotonin in the brain is:
increased by a diet high in carbohydrates.
After studying artists who would spend hour after hour painting or sculpting with enormous concentration, Csikszentmihalyi formulated the concept of
Which of the following is currently true regarding first-year college students' opinions of casual sex?
If you are feeling full, chances are this hormone is circulating through your brain
According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the __________ needs are at the bottom and need to be fulfilled first before the upper ____________ psychological ones.
In an attempt to lose some of the weight she has gained from binge eating, Melissa tries to compensate by using laxatives and exercising until she is exhausted. Melissa most clearly demonstrates symptoms of:
bulimia nervosa
The secretion of ghrelin ________ appetite, and the secretion of PYY ________ appetite
stimulates; suppresses
A need refers to
Increases in the hormone insulin lead to:
decreasing blood glucose levels
Which of the following words must be avoided when you are working on achieving your goals?
more than 1 answer is correct
In one's body, what is the body 's base rate of energy expenditure called?
Basal metabolic rate
Two rats have escaped from their cages in the neurophysiology lab. The technician needs your help in returning them to their proper cages. One rat is grossly overweight; the other is severely underweight. You confidently state that the overweight rat goes in the ?________-lesion? cage, while the underweight rat goes in the ?________-lesion? cage.
assumes that biological, sociocultural and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders.
Axis I
primary classification
Axis II
personality disorders
Axis III
General Medical Conditions
Axis IV
Psychosocial Stressors
Axis V
Level of Functioning (0-100)(0-least amount of function, 100-most amount of function)
Rosennan Study
wanted to know how people with psychological disorders are viewed and once they are labled, how easy is it to remove the label
labeling psychological disorders
critics of the DSM-IV argue that labels may stigmatize individuals
Neurotic Disorder (term that is seldom used)
usually distressing but still allows one to think rationally and function socially
Psychotic Disorder
person loses contact with reality. experiences irrational ideas and distorted perceptions
Anxiety Disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorders (GAD); Panic Disorder (PD); Phobias; Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD); Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Anxiety Disorder
Distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety; ex. motor tension, hyper activity, apprehensive expectations and thoughts
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
consists of persistent anxiety for at least a month; individual is unable to specify the reason for the anxiety
Panic Disorder
intense dread and terror with chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations; ex. panic attacks
persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation. we know what we fear
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Anxiety-provoking thoughts that will not go away (obsession) and /or urges to perform repetitive behaviors to prevent anxiety (compulsion)
PET scan of brain with OCD
high activity (red) in frontal lobe areas involved with directing attention
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
four or more weeks of the following symptoms constitute post-traumatic stress disorder. Only about 10% of women and 20% of men react to traumatic situations and develop PTSD
PTSD Symptoms
1. haunting memories 2. nightmares 3. social withdrawal 4. jumpy anxiety 5. sleep problems
Dietary Influences
Deficiencies- vitamin b, calcium, magnesium, iron, vitamin d. rule out Allergies. eat a high protein, low carb, sugar-free diet.
Fluctuating states promote
(serotonin) Anxiety, rage, agitation, inability to concentrate, abrupt sleep disturances.
Steady low states promote
(serotonin) depression, apathy, lethargy, decreased memory, loss of interest in life, chronic insomnia.
Somatoform Disorders
hypochondriasis,conversion disorders (body)- glove anesthesia, Psychological symptoms take a physical form. even though no physical causes can be found.
individual has a pervasive fear of illness and disease.
Conversion Disorder
individual experiences specific physical symptoms even though no pshycological problems can be found.
Mood Disorders (affect disorders)
Major Depressive Disorder (unipolar),Bipolar Disorder, Dysthymia (unipolar), Manic Disorder, Cyclothymia (Bipolar)
Explaining mood disorders
characterized by emotional extremes
Major Depressive Disorder
experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness and diminished interest.
generally more chronic and has fewer symptoms than major depressive disorder
Manic Disorder
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
Bipolar Disorder
alternating between depression and the overexcited state of mania; manic depressive disorder
mood swings from depression and mania, but less severe; tends to be more chronic than acute
folic acid(serotonin production), cobalamill(B12), vitamin C(subscurvy), vitamin A
vitamin c deficiency
Zinc deficiency
anorexia, loss of smell,taste and hearing, low libido, fatigue
dissociative disorder
dissociative identity disorder, MPD(multiple personality disorders), involve a sudden loss of memory or change in identity, rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities.
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, inappropriate emotions and actions, odd communication, abnormal motor behavior, social withdrawal
false beliefs, often of persecution of gradeu
sensory experiences without sensory stimulation
Subtypes or Schizophrenia
paranoid, disorganized, catotonic, undifferentiated, residual
preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations often with the themes of persecution or gradiosity
disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion
immobility (or excessive, purposeless movement), extreme negativism and/or parrot-like repeating of another's speech or movements
many and varied symptoms
withdrawal, after hallucinations and delusions have disappeared
Viral infection
schisophrenia has also been observed in individuals who contracted a viral infection (flu) during the middle of their fetal development
Genetic factors
the likelihood of an individual suffering from schizophrenia is 50% if their identical twin has the disease.
psychological and environmental factors can trigger schizophrenia if the individual is genetically predisposed
personality disorders
anxiety, eccentric, dramatic or impulsive, anti-social.
avoidant, dependent, obsessive compulsive
schizoid, paranoid, schizotypal
Dramatic or Impulsive
histrionic, narcissistic, boderline
Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD)
lacks a conscience, little regret over their crimes, genetic predisposition to lack of fear interacting with social environment, formerly
biological markers of APD
youngsters, before committing a crime, respond with lower levels of stress hormones than others do at their age. PET scans of 41 murders revealed reduced activity in the frontal lobes. In a follow-up study, repeat offenders had 11% less frontal lobe activity.
Rates of Psychological Disorders
Alcohol Abuse- 5.2%; Generalized anxiety- 4.0%
Who see's a therapist?
education levels-higher, medical insurance- with, gender-female, disorder
psychoanalysis, humanistic, behavioral, cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, biomedical, family and group
an interaction between a therapist and someone who has psychological difficulties
eclectic approach
depends on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
goal:discover unresolved unconscious conflicts. interpretations of the patient's repressed feelings: patient gains self-insight, rapidly decreased in recent years. methods: free associations, resistances, dreams and transferences. resistance: blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material. transference: the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships
humanistic therapy (HT)
client centered therapy. developed by Carl Rogers
HT goal
restructure self-concept to better correspond to reality
HT techniques
active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathetic environment. listener echoes, restates, and clarifies
behavior therapy (BT) goals
unlearning maladaptive behavior and learning adaptive ones
applies learning principals to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
BT counter-conditioning
condition new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors. classical conditioning-systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning
Aversive Conditioning
counter-conditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior. nausea===>alcohol
exposure therapy
exposing people to the things they fear and avoid
systematic desensitization
associates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. used to threat phobias
token economy
operant conditioning procedure that rewards desired behavior. patient exchanges token for desired behavior.
cognitive theory (CT)
most common theory. goal: teach people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting
Cognitive-behavioral therapy
combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavioral therapy (changing behavior)
Group and Family therapies
treats family as a system. views an individuals unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members
evaluating psychotherapies
regression toward the mean; extremes fall back toward their average, people may get better with time, not therapy.
who do people turn to for help with psychological difficulties?
physicians-41.6%, mental health specialist-38.6%, other professionals-19.8%
which therapy would be most effective for treating a particular problem?
depression-behavior, cognition, interpersonal; anxiety-cognition, exposure, stress, inoculation; Bulimia-cognitive-behavior; Phobia-behavior; Bed Wetting-behavior, modification
therapy providers
psychologists, social workers, counselors, psychiatrists, physicians
biomedical therapies
psycho-pharmacology-study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior. Electroconvulsive therapy- unilateral or bilateral shock to the brain
depress CNS activity, valium, xanax, ativan, buspar, reduces norepinephrine levels
first generation-thorazine, mellaril, haldol-tardive dyskinesia. new generation- clozapine, risperdal, zyprexa
tricyclics- evail, tofranil. mao inhibitors (MAOIs)- Naidil. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)- prozac, paxil, zoloft
mood stabilities
lithium-for the mood swings of bipolar (manic-depressive) disorders. Pepakote- treats manic episodes (originally for epilepsy)
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain. unilateral or bilateral.
repetitive trans-cranial magnetic stimulation, sends magnetic waves to the cortical surface of the brain.
one's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
Psychoanalytic theory
Maslow and Rogers
Psychoanalytic perspective
childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations. psychoanalysis-unconscious motives and conflicts shape personality
free association
explores the unconscious. person says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
unconscious psychic energy that operates on the pleasure principal, demanding immediate gratification. ex. if you want it, you take it; if your mad at someone, you hit them. ( not the nice side of us, selfish side)
super ego
internalized ideals that provide standards for judgement (the conscience) and for future aspirayions.
conscious, "executive" part of personality. Mediates among the demands of the id, super ego, and reality. operates on the reality principle.
the childhood stages of development during which the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
Freud's psycho-sexual stages
anal retentive and anal expulsion
projective test
rorschach or TAT. ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner self.
ink blot test
thematic apperception test
alfred adler, karen horney, carl jung
Alfred Adler
importance of childhood social tension
Karen Horney
sought to balance Freud's masculine biases
Carl Jung
emphasized the collective unconscious. concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species history
Abraham Maslow
self actualization processes of productive and healthy people
self actualization
the ultimate need that arises after other needs are met and self-esteem is achieved. the motivation to fulfill one's potential
Carl Rogers
focused on growth and fulfillment of individuals; genuineness, acceptance, empathy
Unconditional Positive Regard
an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in an answer to the question, "who am I?"
the trait perspective
trait- a characteristic pattern of behavior. a disposition to feel and act as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports.
personality inventory
a questionnaire where people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors. used to assess selected personality traits.
preference for social interaction
orientation toward compassion and caring about others away from antagonism
degree of organization, preference for goal-oriented activity
tendency toward negative, emotionality instability, inability to cope
tolerance for new ideas and new ways of doing things, experientially orientated
social-cognitive perspective
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons and their social context
personal control
our sense of controlling our environments rather than feeling helpless
external locus of control
outside forces beyond one's personal control determined ones fate
learned helplessness
uncontrolled bad events
internal locus of control
the perception that one controls one's own fate
positive psychology
the scientific study of optimal human functioning. promotes conditions that enable individual's and communities to thrive.
spotlight effect
overestimating others noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance and mistakes
self-serving basis
readiness to perceive oneself favorably
proposed by Albert Bandura. belief about one's ability to perform specific tasks