honors history-research and writing manual test (p. 1-25)
Terms in this set (67)
research is the process of
gathering, analyzing, interpreting, and organizing information for the purpose of reporting on some particular topic
the Library of Congress catalog system is used primarily by
one advantage to using a newspaper or magazine article from the time period in which something happened is that
it can portray more vividly how people reacted
a "Biographical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt" is an example of a
in the Dewey Decimal system, one would find works on American history
in the 900s
"A History of Germany" is an example of a
in the Library of Congress system, works on military and naval science are found
advantages to being present in a library
1. Libraries provide a good environment for study.
2. One often discovers by accident materials that one would not have thought of in using the Internet.
3. One can get assistance from the librarian or the teacher in trying to find sources.
4. One has immediate access to references and other materials that can help clarify information found or sought.
5. Libraries also have databases and general Internet access.
6. Libraries in larger cities have branch libraries that are all interconnected by computer, giving students access to more information about available materials.
"The Battle of Waterloo" is an example of a
an autobiography can contain incorrect information because
of failing memory
One advantage for students to use published rather than unpublished documents is that
scholars have edited them for easier use and provide notes to explain the material better
using the boolean method involves
under the Library of Congress system, works on economic history are found
"The Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature" is
a multivolume collection that lists selected authors and subjects alphabetically and shows where one can find them in various magazine and journal articles
"An Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire" is an example of
a specialized encyclopedia
may give a full account of someone's life or focus on selected aspects
the Library of Congress System is based off of
Dewey Decimal System is most commonly used in
in high schools and public libraries.
categories in the DDS
009-099 General works
300-399 Social sciences (including economic history, and military and naval science) 400-499 Language
500-599 Pure science
700-799 The arts
Reference materials consist of two types
1) those that provide both general and detailed information on most every subject imaginable and (2) those that show the user how and where to find this information. Reference books include encyclopedias, dictionaries, bibliographies, lexicons, almanacs, guides, atlases, and indexes to newspaper and magazine articles.
enable students to locate information on diverse subjects in books and magazines. After having acquired an overview of the topic by reading general histories and encyclopedia entries, students should locate the reference guides in the library.
two types of encyclopedias:
general encyclopedias and specialized encyclopedias
useful in that it provides general information on possible subjects of interest to the student.
usually contain more selective and detailed information on topics than the former type.
Encyclopedia Americana is an example of a
Other Types of References
provide important factual information on a wide variety of topics. These include specialized dictionaries, almanacs, atlases, and an assortment of books dealing with subjects such as art, music, religion, history, mathematics, science, and literature.
can be a storehouse of information or simply a collection of guides, lists, and indexes showing one how and where to find materials
are web sites that provide current information on a variety of topics.
General Works on a Subject
works in this category contain much information on a wide range of topics within a given field of interest.
broad-sounding titles and contain brief overviews of individual topics within the scope of the work. They also provide lists of more specialized works for further reading. Most high school and many undergraduate college textbooks fall into this category.
These cover the widest range, such as the history of the world or that of a specific region in its entirety.
Specialized Works (Monographs)
deal with more specialized topics or time periods. typically have the more detailed—and often far more interesting—information.
a biography written by the person whose life is chronicled.
is a book that contains lists of works on particular subjects.
provides brief descriptions, as well as evaluations, of the works listed.
Magazines and newspapers
constitute valuable sources for gathering information for various types of research projects.
newspaper stories, like those in magazines, can aid students in their research in several ways:
They give a greater sense of "reality" to a topic.
They add "color" to an account about some historical person or event.
They provide a better "feel" for how the people of a particular time period reacted to a news story.
refers to photographic information reduced in size and viewed only by means of some type of machine that enlarges the material.
is film on a spool that can be viewed by threading it through a machine which enlarges the images.
Microfiche consists of transparent, plastic sheets approximately 4" x 6" that contain large amounts of information.
"original," "firsthand," or "eyewitness.". if the information contained in them is by a person or persons who were present or who participated in the events described.
Historians routinely seek out the primary sources as an integral part of their research, because they
want to see for themselves what was originally described and draw their own conclusions
reflect someone's interpretation of primary sources.
Scholars have gone through the original sources and selected those which they find useful in order to study a particular topic.
usually found in government archives, presidential libraries, museums, university libraries, and other research institutions and sometimes made available only to those with scholarly credentials. usually not available to high school students
4 steps to identify a book's usefulness
1. examine the table of contents
2. check the index
3. read the introduction of the book has one, for the author will usually indicate what it covers or does not cover
4. skim over the chapters, examining the first and last paragraphs, and spot checking some of the topic sentences of paragraphs
This is an optional feature that does not always appear in a book. It is usually written by someone other than the author, explaining a little about the significance of the author's research and findings.
This is also an optional feature. Its purpose is to explain briefly why the author has decided to write the book and for whom it may be intended. As an example, a historian who has gained access to official government documents recently declassified may want to explain in the preface that a new study of this particular topic is necessary in order to clear up some widely held misconceptions. In another case, the author of a book may address the preface to students or teachers.
This section is located in the front part of the book and enables the reader to see the titles of individual chapters or other headings and the page numbers on which they begin. If the book has maps, photographs, illustrations, charts, or any other types of special information, these may be included or listed separately under their own headings which follow immediately.
The introduction is a fairly common, although optional, section. It usually lays out the scope and thesis of the book and often provides some detailed explanation about the importance or need for a new study, a review of other works on the topic, or some background information which the author considers necessary for the reader.
A glossary is an alphabetical list of terms—and their definitions—directly associated with a particular topic and is designed to assist readers who may be unfamiliar with them.
An appendix may be added at the end of a book. This contains various types of information, such as copies of documents or other material not included in the narration. (Plural: appendices or appendixes)
This usually comes after the text or, if the book has them, after the appendixes and endnotes. It is an alphabetical list of authors and their works from which information was taken to write the book. It may contain some sources that are not actually cited but were influential in helping the author draw conclusions about the topic. A works cited page lists only those that have specifically been used in docu- mentation. That is why some teachers have their students use the latter in their research papers.
The index is located at the back of the book and lists specific persons and topics alphabetically and the page numbers where they can be found. Some works because of their length and large amount of information may have more than one index, dividing the listings according to category, often a general index and one for persons. Literary anthologies usually have separate indexes (also spelled indices) for authors and titles.
Flaws of using the internet for research:
1. The internet is not regulated.
2. Many websites simply provide encyclopedic material.
3. Information can contain errors.
4. Search engines are tools, not magic lamps.
5. Many website matches simply duplicate the same information
6. Most Internet material is available in books and other printed sources
What do you write on a bibliography card?
author, title, publisher, date, and library call number
What size should your notecard be and lined or unlined?
4" x 6" lined
Why does using paper give you an advantage?
It is never outdated like technology, and the information is never lost and irretrievable due to computer error or power outages.
What do you put on the notecard?
1. name of the author of the source (last name sufficient because of bibliography card
2. shortened form of the title
3. topic of the information
4. desired information
5. page number in source
What will reading as much background information as possible help you with?
1. what kind of sources to look for
2. what kind of information they need
3. the ability to put more of the text into their own words
4. the ability to avoid taking notes on useless data
When is direct quotation preferable?
1. If the information that is written in a clever or beautiful manner loses its effectiveness if paraphrased
2. Statements that contradict generally accepted views
the act of putting into one's own words information from a source
What are the two types of paraphrasing?
acceptable and unacceptable
When is paraphrasing unacceptable?
When it is too close to the original source
How should students organize their notecards?
What two types of topics are assigned?
specific and open-ended
Suggested steps in selecting a topic
1. After picking a few subjects of interest, students should read about them in the textbook or in some other source, such as an encyclopedia, in order to obtain some general information. This will enable students to decide on a main topic which will be narrowed down later.
2. Students should then continue to do some background work by writing down important people, events, and dates associated with the topic. This will help them find more materials.
3. Students should look through the online library catalog for books dealing with the topic. (Note: The name of the topic often does not appear in the title of the book. For this reason, some background knowledge on the part of the student is necessary in order to decide which sources may provide information.)
4. Browsing through the shelves in the library can also be beneficial. One almost always discovers materials that do not show up in a general catalog search.
5. Upon finding a few books, students should check the tables of contents and indexes to see how much information is presented on their topics.
6. Some general searches on the Internet can provide additional sources.
7. Students should always ask the librarian for assistance.
8. Students should narrow their topics to fit the available information.
9. Discussing the topic with the teacher is the last step before final selection.
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