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Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
Progressive occlusion of the superior vena cava that leads to venous distension in upper extremities and head.
Is idiopathic with unknown cause, often due to, HBP attributed to no single cause; risks including smoking, obesity, increased salt intake, hypercholesterolemia, and hereditary factors
High blood pressure caused by the effects of another disease (e.g., kidney disease)
Isolated Systolic Hypertension
A sustained elevation in systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg with a diastolic blood pressure < 90 mm Hg.
Accelerated, server form of hypertension manifested by headaches, blurred vision, dyspnea, and uremia; usually cause permanent organ damage
Orthostatic Postural Hypertension
Temporary fall in blood pressure when a person rapidly changes from a recumbent position to a standing position
A widening; a bulging of the wall of the heart, aorta, or artery caused by a congenital defect or acquired weakness
Pseudo-aneurysm, not an aneurysm but a disruption of all arterial wall layers with bleeding that is contained by surrounding anatomic structures. ect: trauma, surgery, infection
Raynaud's Phenomenon Disease
•Hands or feet that blanch, go cyanotic and then red when exposed to cold or emotional stress
•Pain and tingling in hands or feet when they turn red
•Past medical history significant for rheumatoid arthritis, occlusive vascular disease, smoking, or use of beta blockers
Thickening and hardening of the walls of the arteries, can also decrease the blood supply to the brain and cause a decrease in mental abilities
Deposits of cholesterol, calcium, and fat that build up on artery walls and can lead to cardiovascular disease
Peripheral Artery Disease
aka Arterial Insufficiency
-atherosclerotic disease of the arteries that perfuse the limbs
-usually affects lower limbs
-blocked blood flow can cause pain/numbness w ambulation
-can ↑ infection risk→ gangrene
-leading cause of leg amputation
-**diabetic pts ↑ risk
**S&S: include pain, weakness, cramping in muscles, sores, wounds or ulcers that heal slowly, and change in colour (mottling) from one limb to the next, edema, thickening of nails, hairless patches, pulse deficit distal to blockage
Coronary Artery Disease
atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries that reduces the blood supply to the heart muscle
Stable angina is chest pain or discomfort that typically occurs with activity or stress. The pain usually begins slowly and gets worse over the next few minutes before going away. It quickly goes away with medication or rest, but may happen again with additional activity or stress.
aka variant angina or angina inversa. Cardiac chest pain at rest that occurs in cycles, caused by vasospasm rather than by atherosclerosis
myocardial ischemia that does not cause detectable symptoms, may be only associated with fatigue, dyspnea, feelings of unease. can be asymptomatic
Mental Stress Induced Ischemia
mental stress results in increased b/p, increased myocardial oxygen demands--chronic stress contributes to hypercoagulable state
sudden more severe angina that lasts longer than stable angina and is associated with either coronary artery vasospasm or a transient thrombosis
Necrosis (death) of the myocardium caused by an obstruction in a coronary artery; commonly known as heart attack
Inflammation of pericardium. Cause may be infection
SIGN AND SYMPTOMS:
sever retrosternal chest pain, back pain
anti-inflammatory agents (salicylates) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space resulting from inflammation caused by acute pericarditis; fluid compresses the heart inhibiting cardiac filling
Compression of the heart as the result of buildup of blood or other fluid in the pericardial sac, leading to decreased cardiac output.
*Synonomous with tuberculosis>more commonly idiopathic or associated with radiation exposure
*Fibrous scarring with occasional calcification of the pericardium occurs
*Pericardial cavity becomes a hard, rigid shell> leads to compression of the heart and reduces cardiac output
*Always develops gradually
a narrowing of the mitral valve from scarring, usually caused by episodes of rheumatic fever
an inflammatory disease that may develop as a delayed reaction to insufficiently treated group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection of the upper respiratory tract.
Rheumatic Heart Disease
Damage to the heart muscle or heart valves caused by one or more episodes of rheumatic fever
a microbial infection that affects the endocardial and endothelium and the heart valves
inability of the heart to supply the body with blood-borne nutrients, despite adequate blood volume and normal or elevated myocardial contractility. Caused by severe anemia or hyperthyroidism (heart overworked)
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