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Cardiovascular; Respiratory System; Digestive System; Reproductive System; Urinary System; Integumentary System

Varicose Veins

Blood has pooled in vein, producing distended, torturous,palpable vessels.

Chronic Venous insufficiency

Inadequate venous return over a long period of time.


Blood clot that remains attached to the wall of a vessel.


Detached Thrombus


Deep Vein Thrombosis, lower extremities.

Superior Vena Cava Syndrome

Progressive occlusion of the superior vena cava that leads to venous distension in upper extremities and head.


Consistent elevation of systemic arterial blood pressure >140mmHg/90mmHg.

Primary Hypertension

Is idiopathic with unknown cause, often due to, HBP attributed to no single cause; risks including smoking, obesity, increased salt intake, hypercholesterolemia, and hereditary factors

Secondary Hypertension

High blood pressure caused by the effects of another disease (e.g., kidney disease)

Isolated Systolic Hypertension

A sustained elevation in systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg with a diastolic blood pressure < 90 mm Hg.

Malignant Hypertension

Accelerated, server form of hypertension manifested by headaches, blurred vision, dyspnea, and uremia; usually cause permanent organ damage

Orthostatic Postural Hypertension

Temporary fall in blood pressure when a person rapidly changes from a recumbent position to a standing position


A widening; a bulging of the wall of the heart, aorta, or artery caused by a congenital defect or acquired weakness

True Aneurism

Weakening of all 3 layers of vessel wall

False Aneurism

Pseudo-aneurysm, not an aneurysm but a disruption of all arterial wall layers with bleeding that is contained by surrounding anatomic structures. ect: trauma, surgery, infection


Occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus (a loose clot or air bubble or other particle)

Raynaud's Phenomenon Disease

•Hands or feet that blanch, go cyanotic and then red when exposed to cold or emotional stress
•Pain and tingling in hands or feet when they turn red
•Past medical history significant for rheumatoid arthritis, occlusive vascular disease, smoking, or use of beta blockers


Thickening and hardening of the walls of the arteries, can also decrease the blood supply to the brain and cause a decrease in mental abilities


Deposits of cholesterol, calcium, and fat that build up on artery walls and can lead to cardiovascular disease

Peripheral Artery Disease

aka Arterial Insufficiency
-atherosclerotic disease of the arteries that perfuse the limbs
-usually affects lower limbs
-blocked blood flow can cause pain/numbness w ambulation
-can ↑ infection risk→ gangrene
-leading cause of leg amputation
-**diabetic pts ↑ risk
**S&S: include pain, weakness, cramping in muscles, sores, wounds or ulcers that heal slowly, and change in colour (mottling) from one limb to the next, edema, thickening of nails, hairless patches, pulse deficit distal to blockage

Coronary Artery Disease

atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries that reduces the blood supply to the heart muscle

Stable Angina

Stable angina is chest pain or discomfort that typically occurs with activity or stress. The pain usually begins slowly and gets worse over the next few minutes before going away. It quickly goes away with medication or rest, but may happen again with additional activity or stress.

Prinzmetal Angina

aka variant angina or angina inversa. Cardiac chest pain at rest that occurs in cycles, caused by vasospasm rather than by atherosclerosis

Silent Ischemia

myocardial ischemia that does not cause detectable symptoms, may be only associated with fatigue, dyspnea, feelings of unease. can be asymptomatic

Mental Stress Induced Ischemia

mental stress results in increased b/p, increased myocardial oxygen demands--chronic stress contributes to hypercoagulable state

Unstable Angina

sudden more severe angina that lasts longer than stable angina and is associated with either coronary artery vasospasm or a transient thrombosis

Myocardial Infarction

Necrosis (death) of the myocardium caused by an obstruction in a coronary artery; commonly known as heart attack

Acute Pericarditis

Inflammation of pericardium. Cause may be infection

sever retrosternal chest pain, back pain

anti-inflammatory agents (salicylates) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Pericardial Effusion

Accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space resulting from inflammation caused by acute pericarditis; fluid compresses the heart inhibiting cardiac filling

Cardiac Tamponade

Compression of the heart as the result of buildup of blood or other fluid in the pericardial sac, leading to decreased cardiac output.

Constrictive/Chronic Pericarditis

*Synonomous with tuberculosis>more commonly idiopathic or associated with radiation exposure
*Fibrous scarring with occasional calcification of the pericardium occurs
*Pericardial cavity becomes a hard, rigid shell> leads to compression of the heart and reduces cardiac output
*Always develops gradually

Vavular Stenosis

A narrowing of the valve orifice decreasing the amount of the blood flow.

Valvular Regurgitation

Backward leaking of blood through a valve that does not close tightly

Aortic Sclerosis

valvular degeneration without significant hemodynamic effects

Mitral Stenosis

a narrowing of the mitral valve from scarring, usually caused by episodes of rheumatic fever

Rheumatic Fever

an inflammatory disease that may develop as a delayed reaction to insufficiently treated group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection of the upper respiratory tract.

Rheumatic Heart Disease

Damage to the heart muscle or heart valves caused by one or more episodes of rheumatic fever

Infective Endocarditis

a microbial infection that affects the endocardial and endothelium and the heart valves


any disturbance or abnormality in any normal rythmic pattern

Heart Failure

inability of the heart to pump enough blood to sustain normal bodily functions

High-Output Failure

inability of the heart to supply the body with blood-borne nutrients, despite adequate blood volume and normal or elevated myocardial contractility. Caused by severe anemia or hyperthyroidism (heart overworked)


condition characterized by profound hypotension and reduced tissue perfusion

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