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TWIP Chapter 1 Vocab

Chapter 1 The World and Its People Vocabulary
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geography
the study of the earth's surface, climate, continents, countries, peoples, industries, and products.
landforms
natural features of the earth's surface
environment
all of the surrounding things, conditions, and influences affecting the growth or development of living things.
GPS
global positioning system
GIS
Geographic Information System
artifact
an object made by someone in the past
fossils
the perserved trace, imprint, or remains of a plant or animal
solar system
the sun with the celestial bodies that revolve around it in its gravitational field
orbit
the (usually elliptical) path described by one celestial body in its revolution about another
atmosphere
the mass of air surrounding the Earth
axis
an imaginery line that runs through the Earth's center connecting the two poles
revolution
a single complete turn of the Earth around the sun
leap year
a year in which an extra day is added to the calendar
summer solstice
June 21, when the sun is at its northernmost point
winter solstice
December 22, when the sun is at its southernmost point
equinox
either of two times of the year when the sun crosses the plane of the earth's equator and day and night are of equal length
core
the central part of the Earth
mantle
the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
magma
molten rock in the earth's crust
crust
the outer layer of the Earth
continents
One of the principal land masses of the earth, usually regarded as including Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America.
plate tectonics theory
Theory that great slabs or plates of Earth's outer layer float on a hot, semi-molten mantle. All plates are moving slowly and have rafted continents to new positions over time.
earthquake
shaking and vibration at the surface of the earth resulting from underground movement along a fault plane of from volcanic activity
tsunamis
A giant wave caused by an earthquake on the ocean floor
faults
cracks in the earth's crust
weathering
The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface.
erosion
condition in which the earth's surface is worn away by the action of water and wind
glaciers
huge sheets of ice
elevation
height above or below sea level
plains
large pieces of flat land.
plateaus
Large area of high flat or gently rolling land
isthmus
a relatively narrow strip of land (with water on both sides) connecting two larger land areas
peninsula
land surrounded by water on three sides
island
a land mass (smaller than a continent) that is surrounded by water
continental shelf
the gently sloping part of a continent that is under water and rings each continent
trenches
a V-shaped valley on the ocean floor
strait
a narrow channel of the sea joining two larger bodies of water
channel
a deep and relatively narrow body of water (as in a river or a harbor or a strait linking two larger bodies) that allows the best passage for vessels
delta
a low triangular area where a river divides before entering a larger body of water