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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
APUSH America's History Eighth Edition Chapter 5 Key Terms
Terms in this set (30)
Sugar Act of 1764
British law that decreased the duty on French molasses, making it more attractive for shippers to obey the law, and at the same time raised penalties for smuggling. The act enraged New England merchants, who opposed both the tax and the fact that prosecuted merchants would be tried by British-appointed judges in a vice-admiralty court.
A maritime tribunal presided over by a royally appointed judge, with no jury.
Stamp Act of 1765
British law imposing a tax on all paper used in the colonies. Widespread resistance to the Stamp Act prevented it from taking effect and led to its repeal in 1766.
The claim made by British politicians that the interests of the American colonists were adequately represented in Parliament by merchants who traded with the colonies and by absentee landlords (mostly sugar planters) who owned estates in the West Indies.
Quartering Act of 1765
A British law passed by Parliament at the request of General Thomas Gage, the British military commander in America, that required colonial governments to provide barracks and food for British troops.
Stamp Act Congress
A congress of delegates from nine assemblies that met in New York City in October 1765 to protest the loss of American "rights and liberties," especially the right to trial by jury. The congress challenged the constitutionality of both the Stamp and Sugar Acts by declaring tat only the colonists' elected representatives could tax them.
Sons of Liberty
Colonists - primarily middling merchants and artisans - who banded together to protest the Stamp Act and other imperial reforms of the 1760s. The group originated in Boston in 1765 but soon spread to all the colonies.
English common law
The centuries-old body of legal rules and procedures that protected the lives and property of the British monarch's subjects.
The rights to life, liberty, and property. According to the English philosopher John Locke in Two Treatises of Government (1690), political authority was not given by God to monarchs. Instead, it derived from social compacts that people made to preserve their natural rights.
Declaratory Act of 1766
Law issued by Parliament to assert Parliament's unassailable right to legislate for its British colonies "in all cases whatsoever," putting Americans on notice that the simultaneous repeal of the Stamp Act changed nothing in the imperial powers of Britain.
Townshend Act of 1767
British law that established new duties on tea, glass, lead, paper, and painters' colors imported into the colonies. The Townshend duties led to boycotts and heightened tensions between Britain and the American colonies.
Colonists attempted nonimportation agreements three times: in 1766, in response to the Stamp Act; in 1768, in response to the Townshend duties; and in 1774, in response to the Coercive Acts. In each case, colonial radicals pressured merchants to stop importing British goods. In 1774 nonimportation was adopted by the First Continental Congress and enforced by the Continental Association. American women became crucial to the movement by reducing their households' consumption of imported goods and producing large quantities of homespun cloth.
committees of correspondence
A communications network established among towns in the colonies, and among colonial assemblies, between 1772 and 1773 to provide for rapid dissemination of news about important political developments.
Tea Act of May 1773
British act that lowered the existing tax on tea and granted exemptions to the East India Company to make their tea cheaper in the colonies and entice boycotting Americans to buy it. Resistance to the Tea Act led to the passage of the Coercive Acts and imposition of military rule in Massachusetts.
Four British acts of 1774 meant to punish Massachusetts for the destruction of three shiploads of tea. Known in America as the Intolerable Acts, they led to open rebellion in the northern colonies.
September 1774 gathering of colonial delegates in Philadelphia to discuss the crisis precipitated by the Coercive Acts. The Congress produced a declaration of rights and an agreement to impose a limited boycott trade with Britain.
An association established in 1774 by the First Continental Congress to enforce a boycott of British goods.
A 1774 war led by Virginia's royal governor, the Earl of Dunmore, against the Ohio Shawnees, who had a long-standing claim to Kentucky as a hunting ground. The Shawnees were defeated and Dunmore and his militia forces claimed Kentucky as their own.
Colonial militiamen who stood ready to mobilize on short notice during the imperial crisis of the 1770s. These volunteers formed the core of the citizens' army that met British troops and Lexington and Concord in April 1775.
Second Continental Congress
Legislative body that governed the United States from May 1775 through the war's duration. It established an army, created its own money, and declared independence once all hope for a peaceful reconciliation with Britain was gone.
Declaration of Independence
A document containing philosophical principles and a list of grievances that declared separation from Britain. Adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, it ended a period of intense debate with moderates still hoping to reconcile with Britain.
The principle that ultimate power lies in the hands of the electorate.
"One of the ablest men in Great Britain," understood the need for far-reaching imperial reform. First passed the Currency Act of 1754 (banned the American colonies from using paper money as legal tender). Also won parliamentary approval of the Sugar Act of 1764. Americans were second-class subjects of the king to him.
Wrote "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania (1768)," which urged colonists to "remember your ancestors and your posterity" and oppose parliamentary taxes. The letters circulated widely and served as an early call to resistance.
A British politician, was not sympathetic toward America. Sought restrictions on the colonial assemblies and strongly supported the Stamp Act. New tax legislation - The Townshend Act. Though some of the revenue went toward American military expenses, most of it was used to pay the salaries of royal governors, judges, and other imperial officials.
Became prime minister in 1770. Argued that it was foolish to tax British exports to America (thereby raising their price and decreasing consumption), and persuaded Parliament to repeal most of the Townshend duties. Retained the tax on tea as a symbol of Parliament's supremacy.
Sons of Liberty. He and other radical Patriots warned Americans of imperial domination and persuaded the town meeting to set up a committee of correspondence.
An irascible and unscrupulous man who clashed repeatedly with the House of Burgesses. In 1773, he traveled to Pittsburgh and organized a local militia. In the summer of 1774, Dunmore called out Virginia's militia and led a force of 2,400 men against the Ohio Shawnees, who had a long-standing claim to Kentucky as a hunting ground. They fought a single battle and won, claiming Kentucky as their own.
Author of "Common Sense," a rousing call for independence and a republican form of government. Paine had served as a minor customs official in England until he was fired for joining a protest against low wages. In 1774, Paine migrated to Philadelphia, where he met Benjamin Rush and other Patriots who shared his republican sentiments.
The main author of the Declaration of Independence. He mobilized resistance to the coercive Acts with the pamphlet "A summary View of the Rights of British America." In the Declaration, he justified independence and republicanism to Americans and the world by vilifying George III.
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