-taking into information by sight through eyes, uses light waves as input. -transduction of light waves, light is a form of electromagnetic energy that appears as waves lengths
hearing, uses sound waves
molecules that are dissolved on the mucous membrane in the nose
taste, molecules on the tongue (test buds)
touch neurons throughout the skin
sense of body position and movement, balance, input comes from muscle receptors from neurons in the joints and ligaments
Taking sensory information and converting physical properties into to neural impulses:
different physical stimuli are interrupted by distinct sensations because their neural impulses travel by different routes and arrive at different parts of the brain
filter incoming sensations and analyze sensations that sent to the neural impulses (cortex of the brain)
when constant stimulus is presented for a long period of time, sensations get tired and fire less frequently or even disappears • Obnoxious odor that you could smell before is not that noticeable anymore
study of physical stimuli are translated into psychological experiences
lowest level of intensity of a given stimuli that a person can detect half the time
Vision, Hearing, Taste, Smell, Touch
Examples of absolute threshold:
the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference. (Also called just noticeable difference or jnd.)
amount of change in stimulation necessary to produce a JND> constant proportion of the original stimulus
the distance between two peeks of adjacent waves
Range of visible light
400-750 nanometer (what human eye can see)
1 billion of a meter
size of wavelength -shorter wave lengths: violet -medium wave lengths: blue, green, and yellow - long wave lengths: red
Colors are determined by
the membrane of muscle tissue (blue, green) > think of as a diaphragm of a camera, opens and closes
Center of eye pupil expands or contracts
Based on the amount of light the eye pupil...
Lands on the lens
clear elastic disc, shapes the view of the acuity that one holds, objects in distant it stretches lenses to a flat surface, objects that are close become spherical shape
Behind the lens
vitreous humor, holds eye in shape by providing pressure, when get older pieces start to float and black spots appear
light sensitive surface, which have photoreceptors cells called rods and cones> transduce physical into neural impulses
night vision, black, white, and gray vision, 125 million
color vision (7 million)
Back of the eye
fovea (central focus) -Made up of 100% cones, connected to bipolar neurons that are connected to ganglion cells
Optic nerve, occipital part of the brain
light is sent from the eye the brain through the
connected to bipolor neurons: which are connect to the ganglion cells
Humans: Round pupils -From organism to organism changes
light, energy, light waves (reflection of wavelengths and how the mind interprets it)
Additive and Subtractive
2 kinds of color mixing
Red, green, blue
Combining Red, green, and blue lights> equals white light
magenta, sienna, yellow
Magenta (red), sienna (blue), and yellow= no light waves> black light
• Colors in response to different wavelengths are not contained in the rays of light themselves • Instead colors are created by our perceptual system (in our mind)
Trichromatic theory • Retina has 3 types of color receptors • Light waves are associated with 3 primary colors
does not have full capacity to see all the colors
explains vision in the eye itself (back of the retina) fovea
After focusing on an image for a certain amount of time and stare at it> opposing color is now seen in the after image
Opponent- Process Theory
Explains vision between the eye and the brain o All colors are derived from 3 opposing processes o Black and white are opposing colors, deals with brightest o Red and green are opposing colors o Blue and yellow are opposing colors
depends of waves of pressure when an object vibrates
number of sound waves that pass a given point in one second
measured in Hz (measure of frequency)
how high or low sound appears (2000 and 5000 Hz is the normal range for humans) Low as 20 and high as 20,000
height of sound waves, loudness, measured in dB greater the amplitude> louder the amplitude, perceived loudness every 10 dB
sound quality, mixing of varying sounds (hardly hear pure sounds)
Composed of 3 parts: outer, middle, and inner
• Function: collect sound waves through the pinna (cartilage) • Travels into the auditory canal to the ear drum (1inch)
• Amplify sound • Done by three bones > hammer, anvil, and stirrup (called the ossicles) together they are smallest bones
• Passed through the oval window (stirrup is right to it) • Cochlea (fluid lubricates and acts as an agent) organ for auditory transduction, snail-like • Neural impulses fed through to the auditory nerve to the thalamus of the brain
• Baslar membrane: red line of the cochlea o on top of that are little hair cells which are called Organ of Corti (15,000) which are sound waves transduced to the brain
auditory information is sent and processed
Place Theory, Frequency Theory
o Place determines the pitch frequency on the cochlea baslar membrane o understand of high frequency, but NOT low!
o In 1886 o Baslar membrane vibrates at the same frequency as incoming sound wave> which then triggers neural impulses to the brain at the same rate -Problem: individual neurons can not fire more then 1 thousand times per second Can not explain frequencies above 1 thousand Hz -Low frequency sounds
o Neurons work in groups and alternate their firing, not at the same time, combined frequency above 1 thousand times per sound o 1 thousand and 5 thousand Hz sounds
• Air borne molecules • Land on olfactory epithelium> mucous covered layer of receptors (located in base of the brain) - Passes on info to olfactory bulb - Then sent to the olfactory cortex to understand aroma (not thalamus) all senses send info to thalamus EXCEPT for olfactory - can recognize 10,000 different smells -thalamus: sensory rely station in forebrain
Occurs when a substance contacts 10,000 special receptor cells in the mouth • Most receptor cells located on the surface tongue (some in throat and roof of mouth) • Bumps on the tongue- called papillae
a substance contacts 10,000 special receptor cells in the mouth
-Bumps on the tongue - where taste buds located -organ of taste transduction which is the process of converting physical stimuli into neural impulses
o 1rst pathway: information being to the thalamus then to the primary gustatory cortex where taste identification occurs o 2nd pathway: leads directly to the limbic system and quickly respond to taste limbic system(aggression, anxiety, emotion) This allow you to spit something that is toxic before swallowing
Taste sensation is transmitted into 2 spots in the brain
-determined by 3 different senses (pressure, temperature, and pain) • Skin is the largest sensory organ you posses- 5 million sensory receptors • Not a particular nerve ending, but a lot of nerves firing all at the same time (pattern)
- Feel by physical exertion on the skin - Entire body is sensitive to pressure - Most of the cells in the sensory cortex processing neural impulses from fingers, lips, face, tongue, and genitals (most sensitive and greatest number of receptor cells)
- Contains two kinds of receptor cells: 1 is sensitive to cold and other to warm - Austin in 1920 realized> sensation of hot triggered by simultaneous warm and cold receptors
Serves as a warning signal and danger
Gate control theory (how pain is registered)
L and S fibers open and close the gateways for pain to be transmitted in the spinal cord
detect body position and movement
2 phases of proprioception
Kinesthetic and Vestibular
-Provides information about movement, body parts with respect to one another -Comes from receptors in the muscles, ligaments, and joints -Without this feedback about where our body parts are located> trouble doing any voluntary movement
-Position of the body (especially the head) -Controlled by an inner ear structure that controls balance semicircular canal- sends info directly by itself to the auditory nerve, fluid based structure, relation to gravity and balance
Studies how the mind actively organizes sensory stimuli into coherent wholes (pattern)
•Process in which sensations are organized into meaningful shapes and patterns •1 basic rule: figure ground relationship
Laws of grouping (Gestalt)
describe how people group discrete stimuli into meaningful holes 1.similarity: 2.proximity: 3.continuity: 4.closure:
when a figure has a gap, see has a closed figured even though it is not
when we perceive the contour of continuous lines
objects that are near to each other seem to be a unit
elements seem to go together when they are similar
How our brain judges distance (transforms 2D info falls on our retina into 3D perceptions)
depth cues that require info from both eyes
depth cues that require info only from one eye
Shape, size, and color
-retinal size and distance image is from us) called size distance invariance principle -When the distance to an object increases, the object's retinal size decreases
understand how perceptual systems work
Horizontal lines A and b are equal Same retinal image size
Mule or Liar Illusion (famous)
Lines A and B equal
An ancient Chinese healing technique in which needles are inserted into the skin at specific points, stimulating the release of pain-reducing endorphins.
A clear membrane covering the front of the eyeball that aids in visual acuity by bending light that falls on its surface.
A thin, flexible membrane at the end of the auditory canal that vibrates in sequence with sound waves.
extrasensory perception (ESP)
The ability to perceive events without using normal sensory receptors.
Cells in the visual cortex that respond only to a highly specific feature of a visual stimulus, such as a straight edge, an angle, movement of a spot, or brightness.
The illusory movement of a stationary object caused by the movement of another nearby object.
A perceptual illusion in which the moon appears larger when near the horizon than when high in the sky.
A perceptual illusion in which the perceived length of a line is influenced by placing inward or outward facing wings on the ends of lines.
The field that studies ESP and other paranormal phenomena
Airborne chemicals released by animals and detected by other animals using specialized receptors. Pheromones affect the behavior of other animals of the same species.
The theory that explains how detection of a stimulus is influenced by observers' expectations.
The ability to locate objects in space solely on the basis of the sounds they make.
The illusion of movement produced by a rapid pattern of stimulation on different parts of the retina.