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Clinical text for vet techs


PCV, Hematocrit, WBC count, RBC count, hemoglobin determination, RBC indices, platelet count or estimate, total plasma protein, evaluation for morphology wbc differential

what type of blood needed for hematologic procedures?

anticoagulated whole blood

excess anticoagulant does what to hematology sample?

decrease the PCV and increase the total protein values


Packed Cell Volume. the % of whole blood that is made up of RBCs


iron-containing protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body

RBC stage:chromatin is condensed, no nucleolous, 2 stages of division


RBC indices

Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Cell Hemoglobin (MCH), and the Mean Cell Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) and red cell distribution width(RDW)


increase in the number of white blood cells

buffy coat

a thin light colored layer of white blood cells and platelets than lie between a top layer of plasma and red blood cells


the larva stage of heartworms

which species has platelets that tend to clump?


# of Leukocytes per 10x field in normal K9 blood?


Platelets in mammals look like?

cytoplasmic fragments, no nuclei

platelet equivilant in avain

thrombocytes, have nucleus

Order of RBC in species, large to small

dog, cat, horse, cow, sheep, goat, llama


presence of red blood cells of unequal size (an = not, without; iso = equal)


the presence of large, irregularly shaped red blood cells (poikil/o = irregular)


RBC's with increased membrane surface area or decreased volume (Target cells, cells with a traverse fold))


RBC fragments, resulting from the shearing of the red cells by intravascular truama, seen during DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation (death is coming)


Smaller than normal and lack central pallor
More likely seen in dogs
Reduced membrane - macrophage destruction
Immune mediated diseases, hemolytic anemia, transfusion w/ rejection


variation in RBC color, in animals with anemia suggests anemia is regenerative

2 types of cat reticulocytes

Puncate (too old to count)
Aggregate (hyperchromophilic, counted)


an immature red blood cell with a network of precipitated basophilic material in the cytoplasm

what species does not exhibit polychromasia and reticulocytosis in peripheral blood?


most common cause of hypochromasia?

Iron deficiency


Lack or decrease in staining intensity because of a decrease in cellular hemoglobin
Term for a low MCHC value

What does rouleaux mean in dogs?

inflammatory or neoplastic diseases

Marked rouleaux is normal in what species?


Howell-Jolly bodies

In RBC's: small, singular, deeply basophillic nuclear remnants.noted in splenictomized animals & regenerative animia

characteristic of lead poisoning

increased #'s NRBC's with mild to no anemia occassionally basophillic stipping

Heinz bodies

denatured hemoglobin that has fused to an RBC membrane, distinct darkly stained inclusions protruding from the cell surface.


immune mediated hemolytic anemia, Coombs test will confirm, animals own antibodies attach to and destroy its own RBC's

Little to no polychromasia in an anemic animal suggests?

Anemia is nonregenerative

What color are eosinophil granules?


Color basophil granules?


Color of Neutrophil granules?


Lymphocyte is predominant leukocyte in which animals?

Cattle, sheep and goats

Left shift

increased numbers of immature neutrophils in the blood, indicative of a disease process

degenerate left shift

left shift is present in the absence of increased segmenters

What are some toxic changes in neutrophils?

Dohle bodies, cytoplasmic vacuolation, cytoplasmic basophilia, rarely retention of fine, reddish granules called toxic granulation

Dohle's bodies

small, pale, blueish gray, irregular cytoplasmic inclusions of RNA containing rough endoplasmic reticulum, likely assoc. w systematic inflammatory disease.

Generalized cytoplasmic basophilia is representative of increased___?


Which animals may have Dohles in small #'s in health?


Nuclear hypersegmentation

normal neutrophils 3-5 lobes
hypersegmented lobes= >5, normal aging process

Barr Body

small drumstick appearing nuclear appendage. Inactive x chromosome in some females

What do eosinophils do?

help control allergic or anaphylactic hypersensitivity reactions, attracted to sites of these reactions

What do eosinphils look like?

segmented nucleus, colorless to pale blue cytoplasm, distinct eosinophlic -reddish orange granules

Which leukocyte's granules can be used to identify species?


Lymphocytes look like?

small to med mononuclear cells, dominated by nucleus, high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio N/C

Monocytes definition

derived from the bone marrow, circulate briefly before entering tissues where they become macrophages

gray blue cytoplasm, frequently has a fine subtle lightly eosinophilic granulation may contain few clear vacuoles and variable-shaped nucleus; may be confused with toxic band metamyelocyte


abnormal circulating cell types

mast cells, lymphoblasts, myeloblasts, erythroblasts; may indicate leukemia or systematic mastocytosis

Which #'s significant for interpreting differential count?

absolute #'s

flow cytometry

counting of particles as they flow past a detection device

How determine plasma protein

capillary tube used to measure PCV broken just above buffy coat, plasma runs through unbroken endonto a refractmeter, values only accurate if plasma is clear

What will excess anticoalgulant do to a plasma protein value?

artifactually increase it

What is useful in detecting inflammatory process, particularly in cattle and horses?

semiquantitative determination of plasma fibrinogen levels


The stoppage of bleeding; blood clotting. depends on vascular integrity, adequate #'s and normal functioning of platelets, complete compliment of coagulation factors

initail plug to stem the immediate flow of blood

mechanical phase or primary hemostasis

biochemical reactions that lead to the formation of a fibrin mesh, envelopes the plug of platelets and stabilizes

chemical phase orsecondary hemostasis

what does hemostasis rely upon?

wide range of proteins called clotting factors & co factors such as calcium & vit K

Basic coagulation testing includes?

Platelet count, evaluation of the 2 major pathways(intrinsic and extrinsic) that lead to the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin

what tube should be used for a platelet count?


What tube for coagulation assays?

citrate(turquoise or blue top)

2 tests that eval kidney function?

BUN (blood urea nitrogen) & creatinine; distinguish simple dehydration from renal failure

increased protein values are seen with?

dehydration, inflammation, autoimmune disease


most abundant plasma protein, 60% of the total protein, made by the liver, plays an important role in osmotic balance, contributes to the viscosity of blood, transportation of lipids/hormones/calcium..., and helps to maintain pH

decreased albumin seen?

liver failure, gastrointestinal disorders, renal glomular disease


ions that disassociate in water& have capacity to conduct electricity

collectively called electrolytes

levels of serum sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium and phosphorus

what would electrolytes reflect changes in?

fluid balance, gasto disorders, acid based disturbances, renal dysfunction, metabolic or endocrine disorders

2 types of chemistry analyzers

liquid reagent(require more expertise and time) and dry chemistry(simple consistent)

what principle do liquid reagent based instraments use?

photometry: measurement of light transmittance by a solution

Beers Law

the concentration of a substance in a liquid indirectly proportional to the amount of light that passes throught the liquid; high the concentration of a sustance, less light passes through


A device that analyzes light emitted or absorbed by a substance

three levels of quality control

preanalytic, analytic, analytic quality monitoring;
preparing patient, method used, quality control

standard solution

contain analyte of interest at validated true concentration; gold standard

control solutions

quality control product thatmay report a given expected concentration of analyte of interest; normal, high abnormal, low abnormal


rapidly frozen and dehydrated

2 most common problems that interfere with sample analysis

hemolysis:excess pressure during veni
lipemia: sample after eating

2 tubes used for chem profiles

clot (red), heparin (green)

Can EDTA be used for chem tests?

No, EDTA binds calcium to prevent clot formation thus interferes with many assays

why must serum be seperated from the clot quickly?

prolonged exposure of serum to the cells will decrease glucose, increase phosphorus, may increase potassium

what is the horizontal head microscope aka?

what is the swinging arm microscope aka?

disadvantages of horizontal head?

air friction and remixing at the end are disadvantages

which edges of a microhematocit do you count?

Top and left are counted

3 types of hematology analyzers

Impedance, Laser-based, quantitative buffy coat system

Beers Law

a direct linear relationship exists between the concentration of an analyte and light absorption

RBC stage: nucleus is round, no nucleolous



ability to maintain the integrity of the blood and blood vessels

cell membrane

cell structures acts as a flexible, elastic barrier between the inner cytoplasm and the outside environment


the presence of large, irregularly shaped red blood cells

Cilia and flagella extend from the_______ into the _______?

___ & ____extend from the cell membrane into extracellular space.

RBC indices


basophillic stippling

small blue staining granules (retained RNA) within the the erythrocyte, may be lead poisoning/toxicity

Band neutrophils seen w/ regenerative or non regenerative anemia?

Regenerative anemia results in the release of immature red blood cells from the bone marrow

The refractometer aka

total solids meter aka


mean corpuscular hemoglobin


mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration


red cell distribution width

If buffy coat is thicker?

infection and neoplasia may be suspected


decrease of white blood cells

Why platelet count important?

they play an important role in clot formation, several diseases cause a decrease in them


RBC's with increased membrane or decreased volume. They are larger and their membranes are thin, may easily fold

2 common leptocytes

target cells(codocytes), cells w/ traverse fold


disseminated intravascular coagulation


Immune Mediated Hemolytic Anemia


appear smaller than rbc's, no central pallor, but have comparable MCV bcincreased volume to surface area


fragmented RBCs assos. w/ DIC

nRBC aka & info

metarubricyte; in increased #'S may be regenerative anemia or bone marrow pathology as seen with toxins & neoplasia

order of size of RBC's in species

dog, cat, horse, cow, sheep, goat, llama

Morphological features of the mature RBC of most mammals does not include

nucleus is not a part of which RBC

Which of the following cell structures provides the most energy to the cell?


What are the functions of the cell's cytoskeleton?

Gives support and shape to the cell, Enables cell to move, Provides direction for metabolic activity

Cytoplasm is composed of....

Proteins, Electrolytes, Metabolites, cytoskeleton, organelles

Medullary site

Bone marrow

Extramedullary site

Spleen, Liver, Lymph nodes

Has potential to become different types of blood cells

Pluripotent stem cell

White blood cell production


Maintains hereditary information of the species and controls cellular activities


extracellular fluid specifically found in tissues

Interstitial fluid

Important cite in cell for protein synthesis


formed by macrophages partially removing antibody-coated membranes


an unorganized, three-dimensional clustering of RBCs


remnants of membranes of RBCs that have undergone intravascular lysis

Ghost cells

has crescent-shaped clear areas eccentrically placed


RBC stage: loses blue color becoming red

mature RBC

Burr cells

have multiple projections and are oval to elongate in body

increased central pallor; decreased hemoglobin


This is seen in horses treated with heparin


This type of clumping of the RBC is related to the charge on the cell


Basophilic stippling is sometimes mistaken for

Pappenheimer bodies

characteristics of a toxic neutrophil?

cytoplasmic basophilia, cytoplasmic granules stained red, generalized foamy appearance to the cytoplasm

Basophils are most commonly seen in..


mechanical phase of coagulation

phase begins when blood vessel is ripped or torn

chemical phase of coagulation

phase referred to as the coagulation cascade whichends in a formed clot

stuctures found in mammalian cell

cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus

The entire contents of the cell, exclusive of the nucleus and genetic material and bounded by the plasma membrane.


2 types of centrifuges

horizontal centrifuge head, angled centrifuge head

functions of cell membrane?

governs movement of atoms in & out of cell; acts as flexible elastic barrier

cell membrane consists of?

primarily protein & phospholipids; lipid soluable

functions of cytoskeleton

gives support, shape, enables movement, provides direction for metabolic activity, anchors organelles

flagella cilia

Mircrotubules that helps cells to swim through liquids

produces most of cells energy

mitochondria; enclosed by 2 membranes, outer smooth inner contains folds called cristae

main point of chemistry analyzers

show how patients organ are functioning


2 subunits that contain protein & RNA; important site for protein synthesis

rough ER

has ribosomes on its surface & involve in production of protein

smooth ER

involved in synthesis and storage of lipids


metabolic substances the cell has engulfed, may single or no membrane

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