Origins of the Cold War

Terms in this set (115)

collective farm- a communist farm operated by a group of workers under government control
command economy- an economy managed by the government, in which industry is publicly owned
gulag- a system of Soviet labor camps
paranoid- having the mistaken belief that others are against you, or out to get you
Quota- a required number of items that must be produced or provided
submit- to yield to the power or control of another
Characteristics of Totalitarian Rule
Highly charismatic leader
One political party
Use of secret police
state of control of education and culture
few personal freedoms
How did the Soviet Union change under Joseph Stalin?
~Joseph Stalin(1879-1953)
Became leader of the USSR following Lenin's death in 1924
was politically ruthless
held absolute power as a totalitarian dictator restricted individual freedoms
~The First Five-Year Plan
Stalin established a command economy to modernize the Soviet economy
-Believed the USSR could outproduce a capitalist nations
-set unreasonably high quotas for production
-shifted resources away from producing necessities to creating steel
~Effects of the Five-Year Plan
1928-1933; 1933-1937
double steel and coal production
more gain in the second five years
Positive Effects:
-industrialization and modernization
-growth of infrastructure
Negative Effects:
-extremely inefficient and wasteful
-few consumer goods produced, resulting in shortages
-high human cost, including the use of slave labor
~Collectivization
In 1929, Stalin seized millions of privately held farms and combined them into collective farms
Reasons for collectivization:
-Soviet farming was inefficient, and most people farmed at the subsistence level
-Residents of cities needed food
-There were too many farmworkers and not enough industrial workers
-Cash crops were needed
~Results of Resistance
The peasants resisted collectivization
-The army was sent in to force the peasants to submit
-Many, especially the wealthier kulak class, were imprisoned
-Millions of peasants died
~Severe famine
The resistance toe collectivization resulted in widespread famine
-Peasant could not keep any food until their government quota had been met
~The Great Terror
Dictators of totalitarian states use terror and violence to control their population
-Stalin believed the country had to be united-with him as absolute authority
-Stalin believed that war with Germany was coming and that the nation had to be prepared
-Stalin became increasingly paranoid
~Stalin's Secret Police
The NKVD was part of the secret police force of Stalinist Russia
-could arrest and hold anyone for any reason
-used torture to interrogate suspects
-targeted anyone suspected of being disloyal
~The Great Purge(1934-1939)
The Great Purge was a campaign of terror against members of the Communist Party
-During "show" trials, suspects confessed to impossible crimes
-Thousands of government officials and military were executed
-Millions of others were sent to labor camps,called gulags
~Persecution of Others
Religious Persecution:
-Sent Orthodox clergy to labor camps
-Forced Catholic leaders to leave the USSR
-Abolished the practice of Judaism and prohibited Islam
Cultural Persecution:
-Targeted those of non-Russian descent
-Arrested and imprisoned thousands of writers, scholars, and scientists
~Stalin's Cult of Personality
Stalin wanted to be viewed as a godlike figure to the Soviet people. Techniques used:
-widespread propaganda
-strict censorship
-revision of history books and photos
~Woman Enter Workforce
Under Stalin, larger numbers of women entered the workforce
-By 1935, two in five factory workers were women
-Other women worked in health care, education, and service industries
~Value of Motherhood
Stalin's government promoted and placed a high value on motherhood
-Women were encourage to produce more workers for the nation
~Soviet Education
Soviet education expanded under Stalin, and schools were formed
-Schools emphasized Soviet ideology
-Children joined "Young Pioneers" a Communist youth organization
-Students learned skills necessary to contribute to industrialization
-The number of citizens able to obtain university educations increased
abandon- to give up control of, or to let go
effective- impressive, striking, or able to create a desired result
mainland- the most important and largest part of a territory, generally located on a major landmass
proclaim- to announce or declare publically, in writing or speech
warlord- a military commander who uses force to govern a small territory
European Imperialism in China
During the 1800s, European powers became increasingly involved in China
-The Boxer Rebellions put the empire on the verge of collapse
How did Communists take control of the government in China?
~Causes of Revolution
Revolution of 1911: European interference, weakening power of emperor, lack of reform, economic struggles
~Sun Yat-sen(1866-1925)
was know as the "father of modern China"
helped inspire the revolution of 1911
founded the Nationalist Party
became the first president of the Republic of China
~"Three Principles of the People"
Nationalism, Socialism, and Democracy
~The Revolution of 1911
Revolutionary groups in China overthrew the imperial dynasty that ruled the country. They:
-united behind Sun Yat-sen's ideas
-forced emperor to abandon his throne
-establish republic
~The End of the Republic
Chins'a republic was ineffective
-China's presidents did not have enough power
-Warlords took over different areas of China
-These warlords often fought with each other
~Chinag Kai-shek(1887-1975)
became leader of the Nationalists
Defeated the warlords and united China
did not allow opposition to his rule
~The Chinese Communist Party
The Chinese Communist Party formed in the 1920s
They united with the Nationalists
Chaing Kai-shek felt threatened
-The Communist Army was more powerful than the Nationalist one
The Nationalists attacked Communist forces
~Compare and Contrast
Communists and Nationalists fought a civil war within China
Nationalist Party:
-Powerful in the cities
-Most popular among the wealthy
-Supported by the US
Communist Party:
-Powerful in the countryside
-Most popular among the poor
-Supported by the Soviet Union
~The Long March
In 1934, the Nationalists forced the Communists to retreat 6,000 miles across China
The Long March strengthened the Communist Party
~Mao Zedong(1893-1976)
Opposed Chaing Kai-shek and the Nationalists
Became leader of the Communist Party
Revolutionized the economy and culture of China
~A Pause in the Civil War
In 1937, Japan invaded China
-The Communists and Nationalists agreed to stop fighting each other
-After WW2 was over, the two sides engaged in civil war again
~Communist Victory in China
The communists won the Civil War, They:
-used effective military tactics than the Nationalists
-had more support from the people
-drove Nationalists out of mainland China
~The People's Republic of China
Mao Zedong proclaimed that China would be called the People's Republic of China
-The Communists took property from landlords and gave it to farmers
-The government took control of private businesses
blockade- a warlike action to restrict the passage of supplies or people through a specific area
containment- a policy to prevent the growth of a hostile power or ideology
defect- to leave a country or organization in order to join an enemy or the opposing side
mutual- shared in common
satellite states- countries that are actually controlled by another, more powerful country
superpower- a nation that is extremely powerful politically, economically, and militarily
A World at War
The US and the Soviet Union supported each other during WW2
Axis: Germany, Japan, Italy
Allied: US,GB, Soviet Union
Defining the Cold War
The Cold War began after WW2
-A period of competition and conflict between the US and the Soviet Union
- a time of mutual distrust
What were the causes of the Cold War?
~The Potsdam Conference(1945)
Allied Leaders met to decide what would happen in Europe after Germany's defeat
-The Allies divided Germany into occupation zones
-US and British leaders were suspicious of the Soviet Union
~Division in Germany
The US, Britain, and France occupied Western Europe and West Germany
The Soviet Union occupied Eastern Europe and East Germany
~The United Nations
General Assembly
Security Council:
The 5 permanent members are the US, Soviet Union, China, France,and Britain
-Any member can veto any resolution
~Compare and Contrast
The two superpowers had major ideological differences that shaped the postwar world
The United States:
-had democratic style of government
-used a capitalist economic system
-valued personal freedoms
--believed best way to achieve security was to strengthen democracy
The Soviet Union:
-was ruled by a dictator
-used communist economic system
-placed restrictions on personal freedom
-believed the best way to achieve security was to create buffer states
~Division in Eastern Europe
The Soviet Union established satellite states in Eastern Europe
-Formed Communists governments controlled by the USSR
-Established policies in line with the goals of the USSR
~The Eastern Bloc
The people who lived in Eastern Bloc countries:
-did not have much contact with Western nations
-could not travel freely
-were not allowed to participate in government
~Competing Goals in the Goals in the Cold War
The United States began to establish a policy known as containment
The United States:
-wanted to contain the spread of communism
-tried to limit Soviet control of Europe
The Soviet Union:
-encouraged Communist revolutions in countries around the world
-wanted control over Eastern Europe
~The Truman Doctrine
President Truman declared that the United States would help any free nation resist communism
-provided financial help
-provided guarantees of defense
~The Marshall Plan to Aid Europe
The US oursued the Marshall Plan to limit the spread of communism
Give Economic help to European countries-----> Stabalize Europe after WW2------> Strengthen Europe against communism
~A Divided Germany
After WW1, Germany became divided into two countries
West Germany:
-Democratic government
-Capitalist market economy
-Close ties with the US
East Germany:
-Communist government
-Communist command economy
-Dominated by the Soviet Union
~The Division of Germany
East and West Germany
Berlin was also divided
~The Berlin Blockade
The USSR established a blockade of West Berlin
-Restricted movement into West Berlin
-Stopped travle and the shipment of goods
~The Berlin Airlift
TO get around the Soviet blockade, the US flew supplies into West Berlin
-Delivered millions of tons of food, fuel, machinery, and other supplies
-Helped bring the blockade to an end in 1949
~The Berlin Wall
In 1961, the Soviets constructed a security wall around and through Berlin
-it was designed toe keep East Berliners from defecting to the West
-It became a symbol of the Cold War
~NATO and the Warsaw Pact
North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO):
-was formed in 1949
-was created in response to the Berlin blockade
-established a military defense alliance for many non-Communist nations
-GB, France, US, West Germany
The Warsaw Pact
-was formed in 1955
-was created in response to the establishment of NATO
-established a formal defense alliance Eastern Bloc nations
-Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc
arms race- the race for more powerful and greater quantities of nuclear weapons between the United States and the Soviet Union
deploying- moving troops into military action
domino theory- the theory that if one country became communist, its neighbors would also become communist
guerilla warfare- the use of unconventional tactics in warfare, including ambush, sabotage, and hit and run attacks
heightened- increased intensity
space race- race to explore outer space
Rising Tensions
After WW2, the Cold War began
-it resulted in increased tensions between the US and the USSR
-the two nations competed for weapons, influence, and superiority across fields
How did the Cold War lead to conflict?
~The Arms Race
Mutual distrust between the US and the Soviet Union led to an arms race
-the US and the Soviet Union sought to build destructive weapons
-Hydrogen bombs could create blasts millions of times stronger than the first atomic weapons
~Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles
ICBM made it possible to use nuclear weapons over long distances
-the US began deploying misslles in Europe in the early 1960s
-Both nations accumulated thousands of weapons
-Mutual assured destruction: both have enough weapons to completely destroy the other country
~Effects of the Arms Race
increased study of science and math
fear that the other side would launch a nuclear attack
heightened tensions between the two nations
people built bunkers under their house because they felt unsafe
~The Cuban Missile Crisis
The most serious threat of direct conflict came in Cuba in 1962
-Cuba was a Communist ally of the USSR
-The Soviets deployed nuclear missiles to the island
-The US enacted a blockade
~The Space Race
The space race began in 1957 when the Soviets launched the first satellite into outer space
-Satellites could be used to spy on the other side
-Space was another area to be controlled, just like territory on Earth
-Exploring space was a source of national pride
~The Road to War
After WW2, the US and the Soviet Union occupied Korea in two separate zones
-The north was under Soviet control and became Communist
-The south was under US control and became a democracy
~The Korean War
The Korean War began in June 1950
-N. Korea crossed the 38th parallel and invaded S. Korea
-N. Korea captured the capital, Seoul, and continued south to Pusan
-The UN approved a US-led mission to help S. Korea
In Sept 1950, the US led an invasion of the peninsula
-UN troops pushed into N.Korea
-China invaded from the north, and UN forces retreated south
-The Korean War ended in 1953 in a stalemate
~Effects of the Korean War
Millions of people lost their lives
The US had greater concern about the spread of communism
There was increased tension between N. Korea and S. Korea
There was increased tension between N. Korea and the US
~Vietnamese Revolution
Vietnam was colonized by the French in the 1800s
-Ho Chi Minh and other nationalists resisted colonization
-In 1954, Vietnam was divided into a Communist north and non-Communist south
~The Domino Theory
The US intervened in SE Asia because of the domino theory
-Supported nondemocratic regimes over Communist ones
-Created Southeast Asia Treaty Organization(SEOTO)
~The Vietcong and Guerilla Warfare
Ho Chi Minh supported and armed the Vietcong rebels in the south
-The Vietcong used guerrilla warfare tactics
-The US military presence gradually increased
-By 1969, 500,000 American troops were fighting in Vietnam
~End of the War
By 1975, the fighting was over in Vietnam
Treaty of Paris signed
-Ended the war in Vietnam
US troops withdrew
North Vietnam annexed south
-Became on country under Communist rule
~The Effects of the War in Vietnam
Resulted in the spread of communism to Laos and Cambodia
-Led to intense protests and antigovernment feelings in the US
Reduced support for containment policy
Resulted in the deaths of 58,000 Americans and 3 million Vietnamese
ethnic cleansing- the elimination of a region's ethnic minority by forcible removal or murder.
genocide- the deliberate killing of a group of people for religious, ethnic, or political reasons
implement- to put into effect
reunification- to make whole again; to put back into a single unit
Velvet Revolution- the peaceful transition from communism to democracy in Czechoslovakia
Perestroika and Glasnot
Mikhail Gorbachev created new reforms after becoming head of the Soviet Union
-His reforms were called perestroika and glasnot
-These reforms encouraged rebellion in Soviet republics and satellite states
How did the revolutions of 1989 transform Eastern Europe?
~Solidarity
In 1980, Lech Walesa led a workers strike in Poland
-Millions of Poles supported the movement
-The communist government gave the workers the right to form unions
-They banned unions-including Walesa's Solidarity union-a year later
~Revolutions of 1989: Poland
In 1989 , a series of revolutions occurred across Eastern Europe
In Poland, workers walked of their jobs
-The government allowed the first free elections
-Solidarity union candidates won overwhelmingly
-Lech Walesa became the first freely elected president of Poland
The revolution in Poland soon spread to Hungary
-Hungary began to implement elements of a free-market economy
-A new constitution was created
-The communist Party dissolved itself
-Free elections were held
~Czechoslovakia
The people of Czechoslovakia were cautious about protesting against the Soviets
-In 1968, the Czechs had tried to implement liberal reforms
-In response, the USSR and other Warsaw Pact nations invaded
~The Velvet Revolution
In 1989, popular protest in Czechoslovakia forced the Communist government to step down
-This peaceful end to Communist rule was called the Velvet Revolution
-This new government established a free-market economy and restored civil liberties
~The Velvet Divorce
Tensions developed between Slovakia and Czech areas
-Slovakia was hit harder economically by the end to communism
-Czechoslovakia split into two countries-Slovakia and Czech Republic
~Revolutions of 1989: Germany
Hungary opened its border, creating a "hole" in the Iron Curtain
-Thousands of East Germans used this as an escape route
-East Germany closed its borders completely
-Protesters fought for free elections and the right to travel freely
-The Fall of the Berlin Wall
In 1989, East German leaders opened the country's border
-Thousands of East Germans moved to West Germany
-German citizens tore down the Berlin Wall
-For the first time since WW2, Germans were able to travel freely in and out of East Germany
~Reunification
The reunification of Germany took place in 1990
-East and West Germany first signed a treaty that united their economies
-Next, they signed a treaty that united their government and legal systems
~Effects of Reunification
East Germany:
-Faced economic difficulties in its conversion to a free-market economy
-Sold businesses owned by the East German government
-Experienced slow economic growth and business closures
-Lost many of its best-trained workers
West Germany:
-Saw resentment from some West Germans about the high cost of reunification
-experienced more unemployment as East Germans relocated to the West
~Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia was a federation of 6 republics
-the federation was home to diverse ethnic and religious groups
-violence and conflict began after the death of dictator Josip Brow Tito in 1980
~The Breakup of Yugoslavia
After the fall of communism, the Yugoslavian republic began to break away
-Slovenia, Croatia, and Macedonia declared independence in 1991
-Bosnia-Herzegovina declared its independence the next year
-Serbia and Montenegro formed a federation
~Bosnia-Herzegovina
Bosnia-Herzegovina was the most ethnically diverse of the Yugoslav republics
~War in Bosnia-Herzegovina
Bosnian Muslims and Croats supported independence
Bosnian Serbs opposed independence
Serbia attacked Bosnia in 1992
Serbian forces committed acts of genocide
~Ethnic Cleansing
Serbia used murder and terror to eliminate Muslims living in Serb-held lands
-Serbia called this policy ethnic cleansing
~Srebrenica
In July 1995, more than 8,000 men and boys were killed in the village of Srebrenica
-The UN considered the mass murder to be genocide
~International Reaction
a multinational force of 25,000 UN peacekeepers was sent to Bosnia to end the fighting
They also provided humanitarian aid, such as food and medical care
~Dayton Peace Agreement
In 1995, a peace agreement was signed, ending the war
-Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina became separate, independent states
-Dozens were charged with war crimes, including Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic
common market- region where goods, services, and people can be transported across borders without barriers to trade
debt- money owed to a bank, company, or individual
gross domestic product- :total value of goods and services produced in a country in a given year
per capita income- average amount of annual income earned per person in a given country in one year
rivalry- where two or more people, organizations, or nations are competing against each other
tariff- tax on goods leaving or entering a country
The Effects of War
WW2 had drastic effects on Europe
-Total cost of war: $1 trillion(in today's dollars)
-resources exploited and drained
-cities and factories heavily damaged
-infrastructure destroyed
-millions of people homeless
-agriculture disrupted
Population Losses
Germany: 4,200,000
Italy: 395,000
France: 563,000
GB: 357,000
Soviet Union: 18,000,000
How did the end of the Cold War change Europe?
~The Schuman Plan
France's foreign minister Robert Schuman proposed the Schuman Plan on May 9, 1950
The plan called for:
-aligning the nations of Europe economically and politically to secure lasting peace
-ending the France-Germany rivalry
~European Coal and Steel Community
The European Coal and Steel Community(ECSC) was created im 1950
-Management of heavy industry together
-Protection against creation of weapons of war
~European Economic Community
The European Economic Community was created in 1957
-Cooperation on the development of energy and resources
-Elimination of tariffs on trade between member nations
~The European Union
In 1993, the European Union was created
-Began to cooperate in new areas, such as law enforcement and foreign policy
-Created a government with a parliament, executive branch, and judicial branch
~The European Union
Charter of Fundamental Rights
Common currency: Euro
Government
Common policies
Diplomatic relation
~The European Union
EU Members Nations(2013): over two dozen members
~Trade in the European Union
the EU created a common market
-It encouraged trade across national boundaries
-Workers were free to move from one nation to another
-Some nations adopted a single currency, called the euro
~Collapse of the USSR
When the Soviet Union collapsed, it had dramatic effects in Eastern Europe
Initially, people were excited
They were unprepared for challenges, however
-did not possess the skill required for citizens of successful democracies
-unprepared for the difficult transition from a command economy to a market economy
~Negative Effects of Communism's End
The collapse of communism had significant negative effects on the lives of Eastern Europeans
-Widespread poverty
-growth in unemployment
-more corruption in government
-decline in public services
-increase in mortality
~Benefits of Communism's End
-Growth of entrepreneurship
-Freedom of movement
-Establishment of a free pass
-More contact with western Europe
~Compare and Contrast
Belarus:
-80% of industry still state-controlled
-inefficient industrial base with outdated machinery and factories
-dependent on Russia for electricity and access to markets
-about half of all workers employed by the government
-not a member of the EU
Slovakia:
-by 2013, had almost completed the privitization of the economy
-one of the fastest-growing economies in the EU
-well-educated labor force
-adopted the euro in 2009
~European Union
Former communist nations began to joining the European Union in the new millennium
-The Czech Republic and Slovakia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Slovenia joined in 2004
-Bulgaria and Romania joined in 2007
-Many of them also joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO)
~European Union's Effect
Advantages:
-2nd highest gross domestic product in the world
-technologically advanced, with excellent education and healthcare systems
-members free to move from country to country without restiction
-high standards of living
Challenges:
-great difference in per capita income among member states
-diverse view on government spending
-significant debt problems for some states
collectivization- the process of establishing group or government control over resources
commune- a group of people who live together and share responsibilities and resources
Cultural Revolution- a political upheaval started in 1966 by Mao Zedong to return the country to radical Maoist beliefs.
ideology- a set of sociopolitical policies, beliefs, and aims
Marxist- reflecting the political, economic and social theories of Karl Marx, in that there should be no classes and everyone should have economic equality
privatization- a change from public or government ownership to private or individual ownership
Mao Zedong(1893-1976)
Led a communist revolution in China
Established the People's Republic of China in 1949
Introduced policies that changed the nation's economy
How did China change under Communism?
~The Five-Year Plan: 1953-1957
Mao planned to reshape China's economy based on Marxist principles
His Five-Year Plan was designed to help China's economy grow
-Private land and businesses were seized by the government
-Collectivization was introduced
~The Great Leap Forward:1958-1961
The people were organized into large communes
-People worked on farms, or labored in inefficient "backyard" industries
-Workers lived in dorms, ate in dining rooms, and owned no property

~The Cultural Revolution
In 1960, Mao reduced his role in government
New leaders repealed Mao's policies
-allowed laborers to compete for higher wages
-permitted to sell excess crops
Mao launched the Cultural Revolution
-Believed new economic policies threatened social equality
-called on the young to lead a new revolution
The Cultural Revolution was an effort to solidify Communist rule in China
-led by student militias called the Red Guards
-Persecuted intellectuals, government officials, and managers
-imprisoned thousands in reeducation camps
~Effects of the Cultural Revolution
Economic planning was abandoned and industrial production declined
Thousands of government officials were forced from office
People lived in fear of imprisonment
Mao Zedong reassumed control of the government and the armed forces
~Deng Xiaoping(1904-1997)
became leader of China after Mao's death
allowed more economic freedom
refused to allow political freedom
~New Education Policies
Under Deng, China's education system was restored and reformed
-skilled workers were needed for China to grow
-School was highly structured, and respect for teacher was enforced
~The Four Modernizations
Deng Xiapeng made modernization the main goal of China's government policy
Industry: creation of special economic zones
Agriculture: privatization of land
Defense: smaller military and better tech
Science: learning from foreigners
~The Effects of Deng's Policies
Deng's economic policies produced major changes in Chinese culture
-People acquired consumer items and increasingly embraced Western goods and culture
-Increased exposure to the West brought new policies
~Protests in Tiananmen Square
In 1989, pro-democracy protestors gathered in Tianamen Square in Beijing
-On June 4, the government used military to end the protests
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