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Ch: 11 Prokaryotes: Domains Bacteria and Archaea

STUDY
PLAY
Borrelia, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is a spirochete similar to the causative agent of syphilis, Treponema. Both bacteria __________.

A. have axial filaments
B. have flagella
C. are gram-positive
D. make endospores
have axial filaments
Which of the following statements concerning Pseudomonas is true?

A. The bacteria are gram-positive.
B. The bacteria produce endospores.
C. The bacteria can metabolize a wide variety of substrates.
D. This genus does not contain any pathogens.
The bacteria can metabolize a wide variety of substrates.
Enterics are __________.

A. strictly anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria that always cause disease
B. gram-positive bacteria found in humans
C. strictly aerobic bacteria
D. gram-negative facultative anaerobes that are found in the intestines of animals
gram-negative facultative anaerobes that are found in the intestines of animals
Which type of organism might be found growing near hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor?

A. halophilic
B. osmophilic
C. hyperthermophilic
D. acidophilic
hyperthermophilic
Erwinia bacteria produce an enzyme that breaks down pectin. You would expect Erwinia to cause diseases in which type of organism?

A. plants
B. other bacteria
C. insects
D. humans
plants
Which of the following organisms produce endospores?

A. Salmonella species
B. Bacillus species
C. Escherichia species
Bacillus species
Rickettsias are different from most other bacteria in that they __________.

A. are gram-positive
B. lack cell walls
C. require other bacteria to help them reproduce
D. are obligate intracellular parasites
are obligate intracellular parasites
Which of the following bacteria does NOT belong with the others?

A. Helicobacter
B. Treponema
C. Leptospira
D. Borrelia

WHY?
Helicobacter is an epsilonproteobacteria.

Treponema, Borrellia and Leptospira are spirochaetes
Which of the following bacteria does NOT belong with the others?

A. Salmonella
B. Vibrio
C. Klebsiella
D. Serratia

WHY?
Vibrio are vibrionales

Salmonella, Klebsiella and Serratiaare enterobactriales
Which organism is an obligate anaerobe?

A. Clostridium perfringens
B. Staphylococcus aureus
C. Escherichia coli
D. Bacillus anthracis
Clostridium perfringens
Which of the following statements concerning Mycobacterium tuberculosis is true?

A. It grows very quickly.
B. It lacks a cell wall.
C. It is very sensitive to environmental stresses, such as drying.
D. It is aerobic.
It is aerobic
How many different bacterial species have been described?

A. 5000
B. 20,000
C. 50,000
D. 100,000
5000
Which member of the gammaproteobacteria is a potential cause of pneumonia and can be found in warm-water supply lines and air conditioning cooling towers?

A. Coxiella
B. Salmonella
C. Legionella
D. Mycoplasma
E. Klebsiella
Legionella
A new microorganism has been discovered that resides in the mouth of dogs. This microorganism lacks a nucleus, has a cell wall consisting of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane of lipolysaccharide, is shaped like a corkscrew, and is motile by means of an axial filament. This organism is most likely related to ________.

A. Alphaproteobacteria
B. Spirochaetales
C. Actinobacteria
D. Pseudomonadales
Spirochaetales
Which of the following bacteria is incorrectly matched with gram reaction and morphology?

A. Staphylococcus; gram-positive coccus
B. Salmonella; gram-negative rod
C. Neisseria; gram-positive coccus
D. Bacillus; gram-positive rod
Neisseria; gram-positive coccus
Which is not true of the rickettsias?

A. They are classified as alpha-proteobacteria.
B. They reproduce by fragmentation.
C. They are typically transmitted by insects and ticks.
D. They can cause human diseases often characterized by a rash.
E. They are obligate intracellular parasites.
They reproduce by fragmentation
A bacterium isolated from the soil has the following characteristics: gram-negative straight rod, aerobic, motile, produces water-soluble pigment, readily grows on several common laboratory media. Ribosomal RNA analysis places this bacterium with the gammaproteobacteria. This organism is most likely in the genus ________.

A. Vibrio
B. Bacillus
C. Pseudomonas
D. Legionella
Pseudomonas
All of these statements are true of the genus Mycoplasma except ________.

A. they may produce filaments that resemble fungi
B. they are obligate intracellular pathogens
C. they are unusually small bacteria
D. they are highly pleomorphic
E. they are genetically related to gram-positive bacteria
they are obligate intracellular pathogens
Which of these bacteria is not associated with foodborne illness?

A. Staphylococcus aureus
B. Shigella
C. Salmonella
D. Erwinia
Erwinia
Which of these bacteria is not in the phylum Actinobacteria?

A. Corynebacterium
B. Bacillus
C. Mycobacterium

WHAT IS IT?
Bacillus

It is a Firmicute
Which of the following is an example of a helical bacterium that does not make a complete twist?

A. Treponema
B. Helicobacter
C. Yersinia
D. Serratia
E. Klebsiella
Helicobacter
Which of the following is an endospore-forming bacterium?

A. Nocardia
B. Clostridium
C. Corynebacterium
Clostridium
All of the following can form filaments except ________.

A. Nocardia
B. Mycoplasma
C. Borrelia
Borrelia
True/False

Mycobacteria are acid-fast.
True
True/False

Legionella, Pseudomonas, Vibrio, and Enterobacter are in the same class of proteobacteria.
True
The largest taxonomic group (phylum) of bacteria is the __________, which includes most of the gram-negative, chemoheterotrophic bacteria.
proteobacteria
The mycoplasmas appear to have evolved from gram-positive bacteria that have lost the genes that encode enzymes for peptidoglycan production. This evolutionary loss of genetic material is known as __________. (2 words)
degenerative evolution
Members of the order Enterobacteriales are commonly referred to as the __________.
enterics
Members of the phylum Proteobacteria are:

A. gram-negative
B. gram-positive
gram-negative
Pseudomonadales, Legionellales, Vibrionales, Enterobacteriales, and Pasteurellales are classified as

A. Gammaproteobacteria
B. Betaproteobacteria
C. Epsilonproteobacteria
D. Actinobacteria
gammaproteobacteria
True/False

Low G+C gram positive bacteria include common soil bacteria, the lactic acid bacteria, and several human pathogens.
True
True/False

High G+C gram-positive bacteria include mycobacteria, corynebacteria, and nocardia
True
What is the largest taxonomic group of bacteria?
Proteobacteria
Proteobacteria are seperated into how many class?

Name the classes.
Hint 1: Classes designated by greek letters
Hint 2: B.A.D.G.E.

Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria
Name three Alphaproteobacteria?
Hint 1: BrB
Hint 2: The three alpha dogs are Bart, Rick and Bruce

Bartonella, Rickettsia, Brucella
Define prosthecae
a protrusion such as stalks or buds.
Three important factors of alphaproteobacteria.
1. Grows at very low levels of nutrients.
2. Capable of producing nitrogen fixation
3. Some have prosthecae
How is Rickettsia transmitted to humans?

A. fecal matter
B. bites of insects and ticks
C. Aerosols or contaminated milk
D. blood-borne
transmitted to humans by bites of insects and ticks.
Which is transmitted by rat fleas

A. Rickettsia prowazekii
B. Rickettsia typhi
C. Rickettsia rickettsii
Rickettsia typhi
Which is transmitted by ticks

A. Rickettsia prowazekii
B. Rickettsia typhi
C. Rickettsia rickettsii
Rickettsia rickettsii
Which is transmitted by lice

A. Rickettsia prowazekii
B. Rickettsia typhi
C. Rickettsia rickettsii
Rickettsia prowazekii
Rickettsias are:

A. gram-positve rod shaped bacteria
B. gram-negative rod shaped bacteria
C. gram-positive spherical shaped bacteria
D. gram-negative spherical shaped bacteria
gram-negative rod shaped bacteria
After enter the host cell, Rickettsia repoduces through ____ (2 words)
Hint1: how do prokaryotic cells reproduce

Binary fission
Rickettsia enters the host cell through ____
Hint 1: AkA eating or devouring a cell

phagocytosis
Rickettsial infections damage the permeability of ______, which results in a spotted _____
capillaries, rash
What is the gram-negative bacillus that causes cat-scratch disease.
Bartonella henselae
Name that microbe:

1. obligated parasite of mammals and cause the disease Brucellosis.
2. small nonmotile coccobacilli
3. survives phagocytosis
4. Alphaproteobacteria
Hint 1: Answer is in the name of the disease

Brucella
Name that microbe:

1. Alphaproteobacteria
2. gram-negative rod shaped/ coccobacilli
3. transmitted to humans by bites of insects/ticks
Rickettsia
Which class often uses nutrient substances that diffuse away from areas of anaerobic decomposition of organic matter.

A. Gammaproteobacteria
B. Betaproteobacteria
C. Epsilonproteobacteria
D. Actinobacteria
Betaproteobacteria
Name two Betaproteobacteria
Hint 1: Your niece is bored

Neisseria and Bordetella
Name that microbe

1. nonmotile and aerobic
2. betaproteobacteria
3. cause of whooping cough
4. gram-negative rod shaped
Bordetela
Name that microbe

1. Inhabits the mucous membrane of mammals
2. gram-negative cocci
3. causes gonorrhoea and meningitis
Neisseria
Which of the following bacteria does NOT belong with the others?

A. Rickettsia
B. Bordetella
C. Brucella
D. Bartonella

WHY?
Bordetella is a betaproteobacterai

Rickettsia, Brucella, and Bartonella are Alphaproteobacteria
What is the largest subgroup of the proteobacteria?

A. Gammaproteobacteria
B. Betaproteobacteria
C. Epsilonproteobacteria
D. Actinobacteria
Gammaproteobacteria
True/False

Mycobacterium can grow at refrigerator temperatures. This characteristic, combined with their ability to utilize proteins and lipids, make them an important contributor to food spoilage.

If false, what genus is this and what class do they belong to?
False, pseudomonads and gammaproteobacteria
In weakened hosts, this organism can ifect the urinary tract, burns, and wounds, and can cause blood infections, abcesses, and meningitis.

A. Vibrio
B. Bacillus
C. Pseudomonas
D. Legionella
Pseudomonas
Are capable of growth in some antisepctics making it responsible for nosocomial infections.

A. Vibrio
B. Bacillus
C. Pseudomonas
D. Legionella
Pseudomonas
Coxiella is most commonly transmitted through

A. fecal matter
B. bites of insects and ticks
C. Aerosols or contaminated milk
Aerosols or contaminated milk
Has an ability to survive and reproduce within aquatic amoebas which makes them difficult to eradicate in water systems.

A. Coxiella
B. Shigella
C. Helicobacter
D. Legionella
Legionella
The causative agent of cholera. This disease usually inhabits coastal salt waters and is transmitted to humans mostly by raw or undercooked shellfish.

A. Vibrio
B. Bacillus
C. Pseudomonas
D. Legionella
Vibrio
They inhibit the intestinal tracts of humans and other animals, active fermenters of glucose and other carbohydrates. They produce a protein called bacteriocins.

A. Enterobacteriales
B. Vibrionales
C. Legionellales
D. Bacillales
Enterobacteriales
Name the nine enterobacteriales
Hint 1: SKYPE SEES enterics

Shigella, Klebsiella, Yersinia, Proteus, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Escherichia, Erwinia, Serratia
The four orders of Gammaproteobacteria
Hint 1: EnteroPs ViLe

Enterobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Vibrionales, Legionellales
What is a protein that help maintain the ecological balance of various entrics in the intestines.

A. prosthecae
B. Swarmer cell
C. bacteriocins
D. seovars
bacteriocins
Widely distributed in humans and animals, as well as water, sewage, and soil. Causes urinary tract infections.

A. Erwinia
B. Klebsiella
C. Enterobacter
D. Yersinia
Enterobacter
Produces an enzyme that hydrolyzes the pectin in plant cells, causing plant rot

A. Erwinia
B. Klebsiella
C. Enterobacter
D. Yersinia
Erwinia
True/False

Proteobacteria include mostly gram-negative, chemoheterotrophics
True
Name that microbe

1. One of the most common inhabitants of human intestinal tract
2. transmitted through fecal contamination
3. Not usually pathogenic
E. coli
E. cloacae and E. aerogenes are from the genus ______ and can cause_____

A. Mycobacterium, tuberculosis
B. Enterococcus, surgical wound infections
C. Enterobacter, urinary tract infections
D. Escherichia, food poisioning
Enterobacter, urinary tract infections
What is the common cause for typhoid fever

A. Salmonella bongori
B. Serratia marcescens
C. Staphylococcus aureus
D. Salmonella typhi
Salmonella typhi
Cells that have flagella and move outward to the edge of the colony and then revert back to normal cells.

A. prosthecae
B. Swarmer cell
C. bacteriocins
D. seovars
Swarmer cell
Which genus contains swarmer cells.

A. Proteus
B .Helicobacter
C. Bacillus
D. Nocardia
Proteus
Klebsiella pneumoniaecause what in humans?
pneumonia
Distinguished by its production of red pigment

A. Salmonella bongori
B. Serratia marcescens
C. Staphylococcus aureus
D. Salmonella typhi
Serratia marcescens
Only found in humans. Can cause life threatening dysentery.

A. Coxiella
B. Shigella
C. Helicobacter
D. Legionella
Shigella
Cause of the plague. Transmitted by fleas, rats, and respiratory droplets.

A. Salmonella bongori
B. Serratia marcescens
C. Yersinia pestis
D. Helicobacter pylori
Yersinia pestis
Gram-negative helical rods that are the most common cause of peptic ulcers and stomach cancer.

A. Salmonella bongori
B. Serratia marcescens
C. Yersinia pestis
D. Helicobacter pylori
Helicobacter pylori
Endospore-forming bacteria that causes tetanus

A. Clostridium botulinum
B. Bacillus anthrax
C. Clostridium tetani
D. Bacillus cereus
Clostridium tetani
Endospore-forming bacteria that causes food poisioning

A. Clostridium botulinum
B. Bacillus anthrax
C. Clostridium tetani
D. Bacillus cereus
Bacillus cereus
Endospore-forming bacteria that causes botulism

A. Clostridium botulinum
B. Bacillus anthrax
C. Clostridium tetani
D. Bacillus cereus
Clostridium botulinum
Endospore-forming bacteria that causes gangrene

A. Clostridium botulinum
B. Bacillus anthrax
C. Clostridium perfringes
D. Bacillus cereus
Clostridium perfringes
Endospore-forming bacteria that causes anthrax

A. Clostridium botulinum
B. Bacillus anthrax
C. Clostridium perfringes
D. Bacillus cereus
Bacillus anthrax
Bacteria that produces antibodies and can be used in biological warfare

A. Proteus
B .Helicobacter
C. Bacillus
D. Nocardia
Bacillus
Lives on the skin and can invade wounds. Becomes resistant to antibiotics quickly.

A. Salmonella bongori
B. Serratia marcescens
C. Staphylococcus aureus
D. Salmonella typhi
Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus can grow in

A. low osmotic pressure and low moisture
B. high osmotic pressure and low moisture
C. low osmotic pressure and high moisture
D. high osmotic pressure and high moisture
high osmotic pressure and low moisture
Adapted to areas of the body that are rich in nutrients but low in oxygen ( GI tract, vagina, and oral cavity)

A. Mycobacterium
B. Enterococcus
C. Enterobacter
D. Escherichia
Enterococcus
Smallest self replicating organism that is capable of free-living existence

A. Mycobacterium
B. Enterococcus
C. Microplasmatales
D. Escherichia
Microplasmatales
Which is NOT an endosporing bacteria

A. Serratia marcescens
B. Bacillus anthrax
C. Clostridium perfringes
D. Bacillus cereus
Serratia marcescens
Which of the following are found primarily in the intestines of humans?
A) Gram-negative aerobic rods and cocci
B) Aerobic, helical bacteria
C) Facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rods
D) Gram-positive cocci
E) Endospore-forming rods
Facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rods
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Neisseria?
A) Requires X and V factors
B) Cocci
C) Gram-negative
D) Oxidase-positive
E) Some species are human pathogens.
Requires X and V factors
Staphylococcus and Streptococcus can be easily differentiated in a laboratory by which one of the following?
A) Cell shape
B) Gram stain reaction
C) Growth in high salt concentrations
D) Ability to cause disease
E) Glucose fermentation
Growth in high salt concentrations
Which of the following genera is an anaerobic gram-negative rod?
A) Escherichia
B) Staphylococcus
C) Bacteroides
D) Treponema
E) Neisseria
Bacteroides
Which of the following is NOT an enteric?
A) Salmonella
B) Shigella
C) Escherichia
D) Enterobacter
E) Campylobacter
Campylobacter
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of spirochetes?
A) Possess an axial filament
B) Gram-negative
C) Helical shape
D) Easily observed with brightfield microscopy
E) Difficult to culture in vitro
Easily observed with brightfield microscopy
Which of the following lacks a cell wall?
A) Borrelia
B) Mycoplasma
C) Mycobacterium
D) Clostridium
E) Nocardia
Mycoplasma
Which of the following bacteria is gram-negative?
A) Treponema
B) Corynebacterium
C) Bacillus
D) Staphylococcus
E) Mycobacterium
Treponema
Rickettsias differ from chlamydias in that rickettsias
A) Are gram-negative.
B) Are intracellular parasites.
C) Require an arthropod for transmission.
D) Form elementary bodies.
E) Lack cell walls.
Require an arthropod for transmission
Which of the following bacteria is gram-positive?
A) Pseudomonas
B) Salmonella
C) Streptococcus
D) Bacteroides
E) Rickettsia
Streptococcus
Escherichia coli belongs to the
A) Proteobacteria.
B) Gram-positive bacteria.
C) Green sulfur bacteria.
D) Spirochetes.
E) Actinomycetes
Proteobacteria
Which one of the following bacteria does NOT belong with the others?
A) Bacillus
B) Escherichia
C) Lactobacillus
D) Staphylococcus
E) Streptococcus
Escherichia
Which of the following statements about the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever is false?
A) It is an intracellular parasite.
B) It is transmitted by ticks.
C) It is in the genus Rickettsia.
D) It is gram-negative.
E) It is found in soil and water.
It is found in soil and water.
Which one of the following bacteria does NOT belong with the others?
A) Bordetella
B) Burkholderia
C) Campylobacter
D) Pseudomonas
E) Salmonella
Salmonella
Which of the following bacteria are responsible for more infections and more different kinds of infections?
A) Streptococcus
B) Staphylococcus
C) Salmonella
D) Pseudomonas
E) Neisseria
Streptococcus
Which of the following is the best reason to classify Streptococcus in the Lactobacillales?
A) Gram reaction
B) Morphology
C) Fermentation of lactose
D) rRNA sequences
E) Found in dairy products
rRNA sequences
Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, and Serratia are all
A) Pathogens.
B) Gram-negative facultatively anaerobic rods.
C) Gram-positive aerobic cocci.
D) Fermentative.
E) Endospore-forming bacteria.
Gram-negative facultatively anaerobic rods.
You have isolated a gram-positive rod. What should you do next?
A) Gram stain
B) Lactose fermentation
C) Endospore stain
D) Flagella stain
E) Enterotube
Endospore stain
Borrelia is classified as a spirochete because it
A) Is aerobic.
B) Possesses an axial filament.
C) Is a rod.
D) Is a pathogen.
E) Is transmitted by ticks.
Possesses an axial filament
You have isolated a prokaryotic cell. The first step in identification is a(n)
A) Gram stain.
B) Lactose fermentation test.
C) Endospore stain.
D) Flagella stain.
E) DNA fingerprint.
Gram stain
You have isolated an aerobic gram-positive, endospore-forming bacterium that grows well on nutrient agar. To which of the following groups does it most likely belong?
A) Phototrophic bacteria
B) Gammaproteobacteria
C) Deltaproteobacteria
D) Bacillales
E) Canʹt tell
Bacillales
Which of the following pairs is mismatched? A) Spirochete - axial filament
B) Aerobic, helical bacteria - gram-negative C) Enterics - gram-negative
D) Mycobacteria - acid-fast
E) Pseudomonas - gram-positive
Pseudomonas - gram-positive
All of the following bacteria are motile; which does (do) NOT have flagella?
A) Escherichia
B) Helical bacteria
C) Pseudomonas
D) Spirochetes
E) Salmonella
Spirochetes
Mycoplasmas differ from other bacteria in that they
A) Grow inside host cells.
B) Lack a cell wall.
C) Are acid-fast.
D) Are motile.
E) Are gram-negative
Lack a cell wall
Burkholderia was reclassified from the gammaproteobacteria to the betaproteobacteria because
A) It grows in disinfectants.
B) It is a gram-negative rod.
C) It causes infections in cystic fibrosis patients.
D) It causes melioidosis.
E) Its rRNA sequence is similar to that of Neisseria
Its rRNA sequence is similar to that of Neisseria
Which of the following is a characteristic of Clostridium?
A) endospore-forming cocci
B) mycobacteria
C) anaerobic gram-positive rods
D) aerobic-gram-negative rods
anaerobic gram-positive rods
Which of the following are anaerobic, gram-negative rods:
A)Escherichia
B)Staphylococcus
C)Bacteroides
D)Treponema
Bacteroides
Which of the following characteristics are shared by Enterococcus and Streptococcus?

A. growth patterns on blood agar
B. cell arrangement
C. found on/in healthy carriers
D. none of the above
cell arrangement
Which of the following techniques would allow you to easily differentiate between Staphylococcus and Enterococcus?

A. Gram stain
B. genetic testing
C. simple stain
D. all of the above
all of the above
True/ False

The majority of bacterial species on Earth have not been successfully cultivated.
True
Which of the following statements about the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever is FALSE?

A. It is an intracellular parasite.
B. It is transmitted by ticks.
C. It is gram-negative.
D. It is in the genus Rickettsia.
E. It is found in soil and water.
It is found in soil and water.