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Conquest of the Cradle

a phrase that described how the Americans were able to succed by simply reproducing faster than Britain

Pennsylvania Dutch

German immigrants who left Germany because of religious persecution, economic problems and war

Scots- Irish

scottish people who lived in Ireland, but moved to Pennsylvania

Paxton Boys

an army against the Quakers and their light policy on Indians


an insurrection against eastern domination of the colony's affairs

"Great Wagon Road"

an area of Scots- Irish settlement- Appalachin foothills


the leading industry in the colonies

Triangular Trade

rum to Africa, slaves to the West-Indies, and sugar to New England


the most important manufacturing activity

Navigation Acts

tariffs that controled trade with other countries- lead to rebellious feelings

Samuel Adams

person who helped found the patroit movement

Anglican and Congregational

the two established churches in America

The Great Awakening

1730s - 1740s religious revival of Puritan faith- Jonathan Edwards

Jonathan Edwards

minister in Northampton who emphasized the need for grace

George Whitfield

loud preacher who caused many to convert during the Great Awakening

Old Lights

orthodox clergymen that did not support the Awakening

New Lights

ministers who supported the Awakening

University of Pennsylvania

the first college free from denomination

John Trumbull

painter, forced to go to London

Charles Wilson Peale

portraits of George Washington, ran museum

Benjamin West

painter, close friend of George III

John Singleton Copley

painter, went to London because he was a Loyalist

Phylis Wheatley


Benjamin Franklin

wrote Poor Richard's Almanack

Poor Richard's Almanack

book that had pithy, homespun sayings

John Peter Zenger

person who printed mean things about the government and was decided "not guilty" - freedom of press

Lord Cornbury

worst governor of New Jersey and New York- drunk gambler

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