5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- 8. The ways in which workers reacted to the unfavorable changes imposed on them by industrialization and the growth of big business
- William Graham Sumner and conservative Social Darwinism
- Great Sioux Reserve
- a Reservation set aside after sioux tribes signed the fort laramie treaty
- b -With the growing industrialization and big businesses, the middle-class citizens began to fear the trusts' unchecked power.
-In 1890, Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act, which prohibited any "contract, combination, in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy in restraint of trade or commerce". However, the act did not ease tensions for long.
-In 1895, the Supreme Court ruled, in the United States v. E.C. Knight Co., that the Sherman Antitrust Act could be applied only to commerce, not to manufactuirng.
-Although more jobs were created, they became repetitive and monotonous because workers were assigned just one step in the manufacturing of a product. Many times the working conditions were dangerous.
-The intolerable working conditions led to quitting, strikes, and labor unions.
-companies formed tacticts for defeating unions: the lockout (closing the factory to break a movement before it could get organized), the blacklist (names of prounion workers circulated amoung umemployers), yellow-dog contracts (as a condition for employment workers had to sign an agreement not to join a union), calling in private guard and state militia to put down strikes., and obtaining court injunctions against strikes.
-There was an outbreak of violence in 1877 when the railroad companies cut wages in order to reduce costs.
-The National Labor Union was formed in 1866 and had 640,000 members by 1868. It had a broad social program: equal rights for women and blacks, monetrary reform. Their main victory was winning the 8 hour work day.
-The Knights of Labor formed in 1869 as a secret society in order to aviod detection by employers. The leader, Powderly advocated worker cooperatives, abolition of child labor, and abolition of trusts and monopolies.
-Many Ameriacns concluded that the union movement was radical and violent however, after the Haymarket Bombing.
-The American Federaiton of Labor was founded in 1886. The leader Samuel Gompers, went after higher wages and improved working conditions. By 1901, the AF of L had 1 million memebrs.
-then theres the homestead strike and the pullman strike
- c the legal situation in which property, such as land, is held or owned by separate or individual right, as opposed to collective ownership
- d the doctrine that government should intervene as little as possible in economic affairs, such as regulating business
- e He was an advocate of Social Darwinism claiming that the rich were a result of natural selection and benefits society. He, like many others promoted the belief of Social Darwinism which justified the rich being rich, and poor being poor.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Gompers - United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
AFL - a federation of North American labor unions that merged with the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1955
- Last major piece of Reconstruction legislation this law prohibited racial discriminations in all public accommodations, transportation, places of amusement, and juries. Law was poorly enforced.
- Four statutes known as Reconstruction Acts following the Civil War. They created five military districts in the seceded states; each district was headed by a military official empowered to appoint state officials; voters (whites and freed blacks) were to be registered; states were to draft new constitutions providing for black male suffrage; states were required to ratify the 14th Amendment.
- Seward's folly. Secretary of state william seward was able to purchase alaska for only $7.2 million; yet his enthusiasm was in contrast to the public's who viewed the purchase as a waste. reconstruction occupied americans were economy minded and anti-expansionist. The purchase would prove to be fruitful when alaska proved profitable with its availability of natural resources like oil and gas.
- -John Sherman of Ohio
-outlawed trusts and any other contracts or combinations in restraint of trade and slapped violators with fines of up to $5,000 and a year in jail
-didn't clearly define trust or restraint of trade
-Standard Oil used the excuse that they weren't a trust but rather an enormous holding company
5 True/False questions
1. Lincoln's plan of reconstruction and what he hoped to accomplish with it → -(1863) Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (10% plan)
- full pardon would go to southerners who (1) took an oath of alliance and (2) accepted emancipation of slaves AND state gov't. could be reestablished and accepted as legitimate by president as soon as 10% of state voters took loyalty oath
yellow-dog contract → an agreement that employers forced employees to sign swearing that they would not join unions or strike
8. What the Grange was and what it attempted to do → Hiram Revels was a Black Mississippi senator elected to the seat that had been occupied by Jefferson Davis when the South seceded
Blanche K. Bruce was an American politician. Bruce represented Mississippi as a U.S. Senator from 1875 to 1881 and was the first black to serve a full term in the Senate.
William H. Sylvis and the National Labor Union → He was an advocate of Social Darwinism claiming that the rich were a result of natural selection and benefits society. He, like many others promoted the belief of Social Darwinism which justified the rich being rich, and poor being poor.
7. Developments in the black family and black institutions during Reconstruction → Established on December 13, 1865 and drafted the 14th ammendment and required south to ratify it...Republicans in it included Thaddeus Stevens and 15 members