5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- 8. The ways in which workers reacted to the unfavorable changes imposed on them by industrialization and the growth of big business
- Rutherford B. Hayes
- 14. What Frederick Jackson Turner's "frontier thesis" is and how historians regard it today
- Fetterman Massacre
- vertical integration
- a ...
- b -With the growing industrialization and big businesses, the middle-class citizens began to fear the trusts' unchecked power.
-In 1890, Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act, which prohibited any "contract, combination, in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy in restraint of trade or commerce". However, the act did not ease tensions for long.
-In 1895, the Supreme Court ruled, in the United States v. E.C. Knight Co., that the Sherman Antitrust Act could be applied only to commerce, not to manufactuirng.
-Although more jobs were created, they became repetitive and monotonous because workers were assigned just one step in the manufacturing of a product. Many times the working conditions were dangerous.
-The intolerable working conditions led to quitting, strikes, and labor unions.
-companies formed tacticts for defeating unions: the lockout (closing the factory to break a movement before it could get organized), the blacklist (names of prounion workers circulated amoung umemployers), yellow-dog contracts (as a condition for employment workers had to sign an agreement not to join a union), calling in private guard and state militia to put down strikes., and obtaining court injunctions against strikes.
-There was an outbreak of violence in 1877 when the railroad companies cut wages in order to reduce costs.
-The National Labor Union was formed in 1866 and had 640,000 members by 1868. It had a broad social program: equal rights for women and blacks, monetrary reform. Their main victory was winning the 8 hour work day.
-The Knights of Labor formed in 1869 as a secret society in order to aviod detection by employers. The leader, Powderly advocated worker cooperatives, abolition of child labor, and abolition of trusts and monopolies.
-Many Ameriacns concluded that the union movement was radical and violent however, after the Haymarket Bombing.
-The American Federaiton of Labor was founded in 1886. The leader Samuel Gompers, went after higher wages and improved working conditions. By 1901, the AF of L had 1 million memebrs.
-then theres the homestead strike and the pullman strike
- c 19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history
- d Fetterman's army led into wilderness and ambushed by sioux, 82 soldiers killed, sparked public debate over indian policy
- e organization of a single corporation to control all stages of manufacturing, from obtaining raw materials to marketing the finished product
5 Multiple choice questions
- passed over the veto of president rutherford b. hayes requiring the u.s. treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars. the goal was to subsidize the silver industry in the mountain states and inflate prices. the law was replaced in 1890 by the similar sherman silver purchase act, which in turn was repealed by congress in 1893.
- Hiram Revels was a Black Mississippi senator elected to the seat that had been occupied by Jefferson Davis when the South seceded
Blanche K. Bruce was an American politician. Bruce represented Mississippi as a U.S. Senator from 1875 to 1881 and was the first black to serve a full term in the Senate.
- 1866 - established by William Sylvis - wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor - attempt to unite all laborers
- -before the 1860s, the West was treated as a vast Indian reserve
-after 1860 the federal government divided it up into smaller, separate tribal reservations where the Indians were to be concentrated, by force, if necessary, and where they were expected to change nomadism for a settled agricultural life
-the Indians were forced to give up their way of life and become "Christianized"
-they were slaughtered if they resisted the move at all and their way of life was destroyed
- -The benefits of big business were that they created a lot of jobs, lower prices, labor-saving products (sewing machine), and advances in transportation and communications. Also some people, such as Rockefeller and Carnegie, managed to accumulate a large fortune.
-The problems of big business were that the cost to start a company was so high that it bankrupted many people, workers were paid subsistence wages and could be fired at a moment's notice when hard times or new technologies made them expendable. Industrialization also was terrible for the environment, causing a lot of pollution (rivers fouled by oil or chemical waste, smoky skies filled with clouds of soot, and a landscape littered with reeking garbage and toxic materials. Also hours were long and working conditions were not always safe.
5 True/False questions
11. Why labor favored immigration restriction and what, if anything, government did about it → -They impeached him due to both his reconstruction plan and also that he allowed black codes, and attempted to vetoe bills such as those increasing Freedmans Bureau and the civil rights act of 1866...then when Johnson vetoed the Tenure of Office Act (limiting his powers) and then fought against it when his veto was overridden he challenged it again and they impeached him
-they failed to impeach him because they were one vote short of 2/3rds vote since 7 moderate republicans had joined Dem's because they did not agree w/vetoing for political reasons
Reconstruction Act of 1867 → Four statutes known as Reconstruction Acts following the Civil War. They created five military districts in the seceded states; each district was headed by a military official empowered to appoint state officials; voters (whites and freed blacks) were to be registered; states were to draft new constitutions providing for black male suffrage; states were required to ratify the 14th Amendment.
Tenure of Office Act → a person who advocates the overthrow of all established governments and of capitalist economic institutions
William M. Tweed → 1872, This was a fraudulent construction company created to take the profits of the Union Pacific Railroad. Using government funds for the railroad, the Union Pacific directors gave padded construction contracts to Congress members
5. The provisions of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments and why some feminists opposed the Fifteenth Amendment → -*Fourteenth Amendment--Constitutional amendment adopted after the Civil War that states, "no state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."...(everyone has equal citizenship)
* Fifteenth Amendment--Constitutional amendment that says the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude...(Black suffrage)-it was opposed by some feminists due to the fact that they believed that they should also gain suffrage