5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Interstate Commerce Act, 1887
- Fetterman Massacre
- Samuel Gompers and the Amencan Federation of Labor
- 8. The ways in which workers reacted to the unfavorable changes imposed on them by industrialization and the growth of big business
- 9. Early state and federal efforts to regulate railroads and why they were ineffective
- a -bill that created America's first regulatory commission, the Interstate Commerce Commission
-purpose was to regulate the railroads and railroad rates, and to ensure "reasonable and just" rates
- b ...
- c Fetterman's army led into wilderness and ambushed by sioux, 82 soldiers killed, sparked public debate over indian policy
- d -With the growing industrialization and big businesses, the middle-class citizens began to fear the trusts' unchecked power.
-In 1890, Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act, which prohibited any "contract, combination, in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy in restraint of trade or commerce". However, the act did not ease tensions for long.
-In 1895, the Supreme Court ruled, in the United States v. E.C. Knight Co., that the Sherman Antitrust Act could be applied only to commerce, not to manufactuirng.
-Although more jobs were created, they became repetitive and monotonous because workers were assigned just one step in the manufacturing of a product. Many times the working conditions were dangerous.
-The intolerable working conditions led to quitting, strikes, and labor unions.
-companies formed tacticts for defeating unions: the lockout (closing the factory to break a movement before it could get organized), the blacklist (names of prounion workers circulated amoung umemployers), yellow-dog contracts (as a condition for employment workers had to sign an agreement not to join a union), calling in private guard and state militia to put down strikes., and obtaining court injunctions against strikes.
-There was an outbreak of violence in 1877 when the railroad companies cut wages in order to reduce costs.
-The National Labor Union was formed in 1866 and had 640,000 members by 1868. It had a broad social program: equal rights for women and blacks, monetrary reform. Their main victory was winning the 8 hour work day.
-The Knights of Labor formed in 1869 as a secret society in order to aviod detection by employers. The leader, Powderly advocated worker cooperatives, abolition of child labor, and abolition of trusts and monopolies.
-Many Ameriacns concluded that the union movement was radical and violent however, after the Haymarket Bombing.
-The American Federaiton of Labor was founded in 1886. The leader Samuel Gompers, went after higher wages and improved working conditions. By 1901, the AF of L had 1 million memebrs.
-then theres the homestead strike and the pullman strike
- e Gompers - United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
AFL - a federation of North American labor unions that merged with the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1955
5 Multiple choice questions
- -Large railroads would purposely set their rate lower than smaller competitors to drive the competitor out of business. They would then raise the rates and hurt those using the lines.
-in the 1880s the Supreme Court negated the state governments attempts to set prices
-1887: Shelby M. Cullom's study lead Congress to pass the Interstate Commerce Act (which established the five-member Interstate Commerce Commission to oversee the prices of railroads that passed through more than one state)
-the law also banned monopolistic activity like pooling, rebates, and discriminatory short-distance rates
-by 1905 of the sixteen cases brought by the railroads to the Supreme Court, the Court had only sided against the railroads in one which in essence, negated the ICC
- disdainful, dismissive, showing superiority toward others
- -sought to rally public opinion against the government's record of broken treaty obligations
-Her book exposed the unjust manner in which the US government had treated the Indians.
-protested the Dawes Severalty Act.
- Wall Street financiers who obtained the help of President Grant's brother in law to corner the gold market; Treasury broke the scheme but first, they made a huge profit
5 True/False questions
Sitting Bull → native to a region or to the original population of an area
2. The policies that eastern reformers and the federal government followed when dealing with the Indians between 1840 and 1900 and the consequences of those policies for the Indian peoples → -before the 1860s, the West was treated as a vast Indian reserve
-after 1860 the federal government divided it up into smaller, separate tribal reservations where the Indians were to be concentrated, by force, if necessary, and where they were expected to change nomadism for a settled agricultural life
-the Indians were forced to give up their way of life and become "Christianized"
-they were slaughtered if they resisted the move at all and their way of life was destroyed
Civil Rights Act of 1866 → Passed by Congress on 9th April 1866 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition. attempt to protect Blacks from things like Black codes
15. How historians have viewed Reconstruction in the past and at present and what its legacy is → -the government tried to impose the Sherman Anti-Trust Act in 1890 but it was too vaguely worded
-the Supreme Court also interpreted the act in ways that were too sympathetic to big business (difference between commerce and manufacturing)
Wovoka, the Ghost Dance, and Wounded Knee → Wovoka - he was a new prophet, who promised to restore the sioux to their original dominance on the plains if they performed the ghost dance
-religion practiced by the Sioux
-thought that a Native American messiah would come and banish the whites, return the buffalo, and give all land back to the Native Americans
-worried officials ordered Sioux leader Sitting Bull's arrest and attacked the Sioux at Wounded Knee
-December 28, 1890
-"battle" that marked the last military resistance of Native Americans to American expansion
-when American soldiers attempted to disarm a group of Sioux camped at Wounded Knee, a shot started a confused gunfight that killed 25 soldiers and more than 200 Sioux