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Chemical Compounds in Cells
Chapter 3, section 3 CA Life Science
Terms in this set (30)
Any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
When two or more elements combine chemically
Energy-rich organic compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Energy-rich organic compounds such as fat, oil, or wax that is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Large organic molecule made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, & sometime sulfur.
A small molecule that is linked chemically to other amino acids to form proteins.
A protein that speeds up chemical reactions in a living thing.
Very large organic molecule made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus that contains the instructions cells need to carry out all the functions of life
Deoxyribonucleic acid. the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring.
Ribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays an important roel in the production of proteins
What are examples of elements?
Oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon, phosphorus, sulfur...
Smallest unit of an element
What do carbohydrates do?
Provide energy for the cell
What are some examples of carbohydrates?
Sugars and starches
What are the two kinds of nucleic acids?
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
Where is RNA found?
In the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus
Where is DNA found?
Mostly in the chromatin in the nucleus
What is the function of RNA?
Plays an important role in the production of proteins
What is the function of DNA?
Carries information passed from parent to offspring (child) & carries information used to direct all of the cells functions
Is carbon dioxide a compuond? Why?
Yes, it is made up of the elements carbon and oxygen
Smallest unit of many compounds
What is a water molecule made up of?
One atom of oxygen and two atoms of hydrogen
What is a carbon dioxide molecule made up of?
One atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen
Is water a compound? Why?
Yes, it is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.
How much of your body is made up of water?
About 2/3's of your body
What role does water play in cells?
Dissolves chemicals that cells need, necessary for most chemical reactions in cells. Helps the cells keep their size & shape; helps cell temperature from changing rapidly.
Does not containthe element carbon
What is an example of an inorganic compound?
Water. Sodium chloride (table salt)
What is an organic compound?
Most compounds that contain carbon
Four groups of organic compounds in living things
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids - play important roles in the function of cells
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