59 terms

Social Studies 2.1-2.3


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What were people interested in from the new world
Europeans had been interested in the rich silks, spices, gold and jewels, and luxurious palaces.
Some explorers would seek a route to China
by going around the southern tip of Africa.
During the Renaissance, the invention of the printing press
allowed for Europeans to start to read Marco Polo's book.
Christopher Columbus was inspired
by Marco Polo's writings.
Columbus became convinced that he could reach Asia by sailing
Who funded his the Columbus voyage.
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
In August of 1492,
Columbus landed in the Caribbean.
Columbus believed that he was in the
Columbus claimed the island for
Spain and named it San Salvador.
In total, Columbus made ______ total trips.
Later, the Columbus explorers quickly realized that he had landed
in North and South America
The voyages of Columbus led to the
Columbian Exchange
Columbian Exchange is
the exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and people across the Atlantic Ocean between Europe
and the Americas.
For American Indians, the arrival of disease had a very negative impact on them. Historians estimate that European diseases wiped out
90 percent of the native population.
The high death rate
contributed to the introduction of African slaves to the Americas.
were used for sugar plantations in the Caribbean.
By the late 1400s, European explorers in West Africa were trading guns and other supplies
for slaves captured.
After Columbus, Spain began sending soldier,
called conquistadors, across the
Atlantic and their mission was to conquer a vast empire for Spain.
Some Aztecs believed that Cortes was
an Aztec god Quetzalcoatl.
○ With the help of other Indians, Cortes was
able to conquer the Aztec empire.
In 1519, Hernan Cortes arrived in Mexico○
with 500 soldiers.
Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro conquered the Incan empire in 1532 due to
the spread of smallpox.
Pizarro had conquered and killed
their leader Atahualpa as well.
In both Mexico and Peru, conquistadors found
gold and silver.
Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon discovered gold on the island of Puerto Rico and searched for
the "fountain of youth."
In 1513, he had sighted the lush new land which he called
La Florida for
"flowery Easter."
Ponce de Leon later returned
and claimed (Florida) the colony for Spain.
There was another tale of the Seven Cities of Cibola
which were said to be cities filled with riches
Spanish explorers looked for
in Florida and Texas.
In 1540, Francisco Vasquez de Coronado set out to search
for the Seven Cities of Cibola
As conquistadors explored new territories, they claimed new areas for Spain. By 1600, the Spanish borderland extended
west from Florida across to presentday
Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California.
As other European countries to colonize the New World,
Spain started to send more soldiers so that they could make claims to this land.
Spanish naval officer Pedro Menendez, in 1565, was sent to protect Florida from
the French.
Menendez established the fort of St. Augustine which became the
oldest permanent settlement by Europeans in the United States.
Catholic missionaries accompanied the soldiers to the borderlands. They were hoping to
convert the local Indians to Christianity.
Juan de Onate led a settlement
into New Mexico.
The Indians in New Mexico were forced to work
as slaves and this treatment led to a revolt to drive the Spanish out.
However, the language, religion, and culture of Spain started to spread
across much of the American Southwest.
Smallpox, measles, and influenza
often wiped out entire villages.
Christopher Columbus:
Made expeditions to the New
World starting in 1492. Discovered the New World for
Hernan Cortes:
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztec empire in Mexico.
Francisco Pizarro:
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incan empire in Peru.
Juan Ponce de Leon:
Spanish conquistador, while
looking for the foundation of youth, claimed Florida
for Spain
Jacques Cartier:
Claimed Canada for France
Describe the Columbian Exchange: -
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and people across the Atlantic between Europe and the Americas
Samuel de Champlain :
Claimed Quebec for France
Sir Walter Raleigh:
Leader of the failed English colony
of Roanoke
John Smith:
Leader of the Jamestown colony
What was its impact on the Native Americans?
Negative due to the disease
Why were African slaves introduced to the New
Because the Native Americans were dying of disease
How did Marco Polo inspire exploration?
They wanted to get the silks, spices, gold and jewels that Polo wrote about.
-What were the motivations of the Spanish in the New
World? How were the Spanish able to conquer the New
World ?
They wanted conquer and convert the Native
Americas. They were able to do this through the
explorers and the conquistadors.
What were the motivations of the French in the New
World? How were the French able to conquer the New
They wanted to establish a profitable trade.
They were able to do this through the explorations of
people such as Champlain and Cartier. They also made
business alliances with the Native Americans.
How were the Spanish able to conquer the New
World ?
They wanted conquer and convert the Native
Americas. They were able to do this through the
explorers and the conquistadors.
What were the initial struggles of the colony of
Jamestown? What were the motivations of the
They did not have any means of a food
supply. They were there to create a business colony
instead of trying to survive.
What happened to the colony of Roanoke?
They disappeared.
How and where did the Dutch settle in the New World?
Through the explorations of Henry Hudson and they
settled in the New York region.
-What was the relationship of the Spanish and the
French with the Native Americans?
The Spanish sought to conquer the Native Americans while the French established a business alliance.
-How did the colony of Jamestown eventually survive?
Union of John Rolfe and Pocahontas created peace
along with the introduction of tobacco.