Bone Markings With Examples

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Condyle
Large, smooth, rounded articulating oval structure

(ex: occipital condyle- they line the foramen magnum (spine hole). Articulates with first cervical vertebra).
Facet
Small, flat, shallow, articulating surface

(ex: superior articular facet on thoracic vertebra)
Head
Prominent, rounded epiphysis

(ex: rounded end at the top of femur or humerus)
Trochlea
Smooth, grooved, pulley-like articular process

(ex: bottom of the humerus that articulates with the trochlea notch of the ulna)
Articulating surfaces
2 bones meet at a joint. These include Condyle, Facet, Head, and Trochlea
Depressions
These include Alveolus (plural: alveoli), Fossa (plural: fossae), Sulcus
Alveolus (plural: alveoli)
Deep pit or socket in the maxillae or mandible

(ex: alveolar process which houses the teeth)
Fossa (plural: fossae)
Flattened or shallow depression

(ex: Mandibular fossa which articulates with mandible)
Sulcus
Narrow groove

(ex: Intertubercular sulcus which is between the two tubercles. It is a deep depression that contains the tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii muscle)
Projections for tendon and ligament attachment
These include Crest, Epicondyle, Line, Process, Ramus (plural: rami), Spine, Trochanter, Tubercle, Tuberosity
Crest
Narrow, prominent, ridgelike projection

(ex: Iliac crest which is the superiormost ridge of the ilium. Palpate the posterosuperior edges of your hip; the ridge of bone you feel on each side)
Epicondyle
Projection adjacent to a condyle

(ex: medial and lateral epicondyle which are on the sides of the knee and are superior to each medial and lateral condyle)
Line
Low ridge

(ex: anterior, posterior, and inferior gluteal lines which are on the lateral surface of the ilium (pelvis/so coxae) and are attachment sites for the gluteal muscles of the buttock)
Process
Any marked bony prominence

(ex: Zygomatic process of temporal bone and temporal process of zygomatic bone)
Ramus (plural: rami)
Angular extension of a bone relative to the rest of the structure

(ex: vertical portion of mandible or the ischiopubic ramus of the pelvis which the rounded right and left bottom bones of the pelvis)
Spine
Pointed, slender process

(ex: anterior superior iliac spine or posterior superior iliac spine which is where the iliac crest arises between)
Trochanter
Massive, rough projection found only on the femur

(ex: greater trochanter (bigger projection at the top of the femur) and lesser trochanter (little projection on the inside of femur towards the top))
Tubercle
Small, round projection

(ex: greater tubercle on the humerus which is positioned lateral to the head of the humerus)
Tuberosity
Large, rough projection

(ex: deltoid tuberosity of the humerus which a roughened bump on the shaft of the humerus)
Openings and spaces
These include Canal, Fissure, Foramen (plural: foramina), Meatus, and Sinus
Canal
Passageway through a bone

(ex: optic canal which is the tiny hole in upper eye)
Fissure
Narrow, slit like opening through a bone

(ex: superior orbital fissure which is the tear drop hole next to optic canal)
Foramen (plural: foramina)
Rounded passageway through a bone

(ex: foramen magnum which is posterior to where the spine connects to the head (spine hole))
Meatus
Passageway through a bone

(ex: external acoustic Meatus which is the ear canal area)
Sinus
Cavity or hollow space in a bone

(ex: sphenoid sinus)
Ala
the upper flaring portion of the ilium that provides a broad surface for attachment of iliac and gluteal muscles; its anterior concavity forms the iliac fossa.
Neck
Narrowing or constricted portion of a bone.
Orifice
an opening (as a vent, mouth, or hole) through which something may pass
Pedicle
Short bony pillars projecting from the vertebral body.
Sesamoid
A short seed like shaped bone shaped that forms in a tendon. (ex. patella)
Suture
An immovable fibrous joint. Translates to "seams" (ex. coronal suture)