Need to develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability, care and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust.
Early Childhood outcome
Need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt.
Need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Those who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.
Preschool teaching principles
Build trust, use warm, calm approach. Allow manipulation of objects. Explain procedures simply and briefly. Use simple drawings; encourage questions; use play therapy.
School age outcome
Need to cope w/ new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.
School age teaching principles
Encourage independence and active participation. Use logical explanations and allow time for questions. Use analogies to make invisible processes real. Use drawings and play therapy and provide group activities.
Need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.
Adolescence teaching principles
Establish trust, authenticity. Know their agenda and address fears or concerns. Use peers for support and influence. Negotiate changes and focus on details. Ensure confidentiality and privacy.
Young adulthood outcome
Need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation.
Young adulthood teaching principles
Use problem-centered focus. Encourage active participation and allow to set own pace. Organize material and recognize social role. Apply new knowledge with hands-on practice.
Middle adulthood outcome
Need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world.
Middle adulthood teaching principles
Focus on maintaining independence and reestablishing normal life patterns. Assess stress levels and provide information to coincide with life concerns.
Need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.
Maturity teaching principles
Use concrete examples. Build on past life experiences and make information meaningful and relevant. Present one concept at a time. Use repetition and reinforcement of information and avoid written exams. Encourage active involvement and keep explanations brief. Speak slowly, distinctly and use low-pitched tones. Face the client when talking and avoid shouting. Use visual aids; avoid glare, use soft white light.