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Carrie-Chapter 12 {A History of Western Society}

European Society in the Age of the Renaissance
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Communes
Cities in northern Italy that were created and maintained by merchant guilds with the purpose to live freely without the influence of nobles politically and economically
Urban Nobility
The new social class that was formed by a combination of feudal nobility and business aristocracy who had interests in economic gain and status
Popolo
Groups of people who were excluded from government and other high status jobs because they had less money and power who later revolted and attacked communes, reforming them into republics
Signori
Only ruled by one person
Oligarchy
Ruled by a council of merchents
Princely Courts
Despots and oligarchs would get together to show off their wealth, create laws, and celebrate themselves in expensive and intricate parties
Papal Banking
Florence gained its wealth through control of the Church's finances and acted as the Church's bank and tax collectors
Cesar Borgia
He reunited the Papal States with the rest of Italy through brutal conquest; was Machiavelli's inspiration for "The Prince"
Girolamo Savonrola
He was a Florentine monk who preached to the people about the corruption of not only Lorenzo de Medici, but also of the Borgia pope; he was later executed because people were beginning to believe him
The Renaissance
The rebirth of Greco-Roman ideas accompanied by increased secularism, humanism, and individualism.
Secularism
Explaining the world and how it works through science and the tangible opposed to through religion; the appreciation of nature and worldly things
Humanism
The belief in human potential featuring a strong focus on the arts and humanities like poetry, music, art, and literature
Individualism
The idea that a person should act like themselves, pursue their interests, and seek accomplishment in everyday life; believe in your self and be unique
Republic
A type of government where the power is held by the people and representatives are chosen to make decisions based on what the people want
The Prince
A guidebook written by Machiavelli in 1513 which details how a prince should stay in power. His main message was that "the end justifies the means" and that a prince should be cruel to maintain order. His inspiration was the brutal Cesar Borgia.
Gabelle
A high tax placed on salt in France which helped to bring France out of debt from the Hundred Years' War and strengthen the monarchy
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
A French law published by Charles VII in 1438 which gave power to a general council over the papacy that gave France control over appointing bishops and lessened the power of the Church
Royal Council
A group of mostly middle class citizens that took care of various judicial, legislative, and executive tasks like negotiating with foreign countries; specifically excluded nobility to lessen the power of aristocracy
Court of the Star Chamber
A branch of the English royal council that used methods of Roman law to reduce the disorderliness and corruption of the aristocrats through secret sessions, torture, and unfair trials.
Justices of the Peace
Unpaid local officials employed by England instead of a standing army that caught and punished criminals, enforced laws, and maintained moral behaviors.
Hermandades
Groups of people who acted like police and used brutal punishment; put in place to control the nobles who were getting out of hand in Spain
New Christians
The result of Jews being forced to convert to Christianity in the wake of rising anti-Semitism in Spain.
Characteristics of Renaissance Art
Perspective
Activism
Realism
Individualism
Secularism
Super realism
Extreme attention to the detail and accentuation of the human body
Renaissance marriages were...
based on economic and political reasons
Women and education
Wealthy daughters received an education, but in topics like poetry, music, sewing, how to set a table, and how to be a good wife
Marriage often prevented women from fulfilling their potential
Ordinary people in the Renaissance
They didn't see much change from the middle ages because the Renaissance only affected those who could afford it
Geographic Factors of the Italian Renaissance
Near Greece and Rome
Access to the Mediterranean Sea for trade and travel
Turks conquered Constantinople
Economic Factors of the Italian Renaissance
Venetian ship building and merchant marine
Year round ships
Florence controlled papal banks
Lorenzo de Medici invested his money in art
Exported wool cloth
Political Factors of the Italian Renaissance
City states evoked competition to be the best
Princely courts used art, music, etc to show off wealth
Social Factors of the Italian Renaissance
Urban nobility combined wealth and status
Inter-class marriage in order to get a title
Patronage
The support for the arts and humanities by wealthy urban nobles who commissioned paintings and other artwork for themselves
Florence
Ruled by the Medici family as an oligarchy; controlled papal banking and exported wool cloth
Habsburg-Valois Wars
During domestic wars between Italian city-states, Milan asked France to help them fight which gave France the chance to invade and begin conquering precious Italy. Jealous of the French, Spain invaded in an attempt to gain more land and wealth too. The war lasted from 1494-1559.
Portuguese Slave Trade
Portuguese explorers brought thousands of African slaves into Portugal and sold them to Italians. Black Africans became a central part of society in Portugal and Spain from then on.
Balance of Power (Italian City States)
Venice, Milan, Florence, the Papal States, and Naples
The Hanseatic League
A group of merchant guilds that were situated along the coast of Northern Europe near the Baltic and North seas. Although not a city state, it had it's own government and economic and political interests.
Lucrezia Borgia
The daughter of the Pope Alexander VI who used her as a political pawn to gain more power and territory because of her beauty and sexual reputation
Lorenzo de Medici
Controlled the government of Florence, was criticized by Girolamo Savonrola, spent massive amounts of money on artwork to show off his power
Francesco Petrarch
A poet and humanist who believed that Ancient Greece and Rome were the highlight of human civilization and saw the renaissance as the rebirth of those great empires opposed to the Gothic dark ages
Pico della Mirandola
A humanist who wrote On the Dignity of Man in which he believed that humans had potential and were created in God's image
Leon Battista Alberti
A man who wrote his autobiography A Universal Man (even though it was mostly an exaggeration), stressing Renaissance individualism
Lorenzo Valla
A humanist who demonstrated secularism through his study On the False Donation of Constantine in which he analyzed an 8th century document that gave W. Europe to papal rule and determined that it was forged which damaged the authority of papal rule
Leonardo Da Vinci
An Italian artist known for also being a great mathematician, engineer, scientist, and architect who is most famous for painting the Mona Lisa. He worked for Ludovico Sforza and Cesare Borgia
Michaelangelo
An Italian artist who painted the dome in Saint Peter's basilica; known to be rivals with Da Vinci, sculpted David
Laura Cereta
An educated woman who was widowed which allowed her to pursue her studies without persecution. She believed that women were thought less of because they allowed themselves to be, but thought that they had the potential to be better
Johann Gutenberg
The inventor of movable type which allowed information and knowledge to be circulated and spread throughout Europe, maintaining the Renaissance
Thomas More
An English man who wrote the book Utopia, which details a perfect society in which Greco-Roman ideas influence education, there were no social classes, and people lived by reason not greed, demonstrating his beliefs that Europe was too materialistic
Erasmus
A Dutch humanist who wrote the Praise of Folly which was a satirical piece about religion. He believed that education was vital for a better society and that Christianity should focus on the teachings of Jesus and not what theologians interpreted.
Jan Van Eyck
A Flemish painter who used renaissance realism in his paintings alongside displaying human personality
The War of Roses
A civil war between the English House of York and the House of Lancaster, named because the symbol of York was the white rose and the symbol of Lancaster was the red rose.The House of York ended up winning
Concordat of Bologna
A law which repealed the Pragmatic Sanction and allowed the Pope to have the first year of revenue from bishops and allowed the French crown to appoint church officials
The Sack of Rome
In 1527, Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) sent German mercenaries to Rome after he heard that the Pope had made secret treaties with both him and his enemy, Spain, in the Hapsburg-Valois Wars. The mercenaries killed and raped the citizens and pillaged the city of its art and money. This was the downfall of the Italian Renaissance.
Modern Diplomacy
Formed because of the Italian city-states. Each city-state would send officials back and forth in an attempt to balance the power and maintain order without resorting to war through debate and discussion and negotiation
The Popes were...
Controversial patrons of art and other Renaissance goods who wished to increase their status and wealth
Baldassare Castiglione
Wrote the Book of the Courtier which outlines how to be a true Renaissance man and stresses the importance of being good at any and all things
Clocks
A new invention which was meant to help people living in cities to stick with their rigid schedules. They measured time which led the people to want to control more and more of their lives and the world around them
Christian Humanists
Those who believed that education was extremely important. They combined greco-roman ideas with early Christian values to form a more ethical world
Artemesia Gentileschi
A brilliant woman artist who lived from 1593-1652
Marranos
Converted Christians in Spain