25 terms

HUG PHPSCIA CHAPTER 2 - 2.2 & 2.3

PH Physical Science Concepts in Action Chapter 2
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boiling point
The temperature at which a substance boils is its boiling point. This is where the substance changes from liquid to gas.
conductivity
- material's ability to allow heat to flow through it
- materials that have high conductivity, such as metals, are called conductors.
density
- the ratio of the mass of a substance to its volume
- density can be used to test the purity of a substance
distillation
a common separation method:
a process that separates the substances in a solution based on their boiling points
filtration
a common separation method:
a process that separates materials based on the size
of their particles
malleability
- the ability of a solid to be hammered without shattering
- Most metals are malleable
melting point
the temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid is its melting point.
physical change
- occurs when some of the properties of a material change, but the substances of the material stay the same
- many can be reversed and but some cannot
physical property
- any characteristic of a material that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the substances in the material, like size, shape, boiling point, density.
- Knowing the physical properties of matter can be useful in the following ways:
a) identifying a material
b) choosing a material for a specific purpose
c) separating the substances in a mixture
viscosity
-a liquid's resistance to flow - holding back from flowing
- the greater the viscosity, the slower the liquid moves.
chemical change
- A change of one substance to another
- A chemical change occurs when a substance reacts and forms one or more new substances.
- Three common types of evidence for chemical change:
a) change in color
b) the production of a gas
c) the formation of a precipitate, or a solid that separates from a liquid mixture
chemical property
- any ability to produce a change in the composition of matter
- chemical properties can be observed only when the substances in a sample of matter are changing into different substances. Flammability and reactivity are two examples.
colloid
A homogeneous mixture containing medium size particles that scatter light
compound
A substance that can be broken down into two or more simpler substances
element
A substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substances. Each atom is the same.
flammability
- an example of chemical property
- a material's ability to burn in the presence of oxygen
precipitate
any solid that forms and separates from a liquid mixture
physical change
A change in which the composition of matter stays the same
pure substance
A classification for matter that always has the same composition
reactivity
- an example of chemical property
- The property that describes how readily a substance combines chemically with other substances
- oxygen is a highly reactive element but nitrogen has an extremely low reactivity
solution
A mixture that results when substances dissolve to form a homogeneous mixture
suspension
A heterogeneous mixture that separates into layers over time
homogeneous mixture
a mixture in which substances are evenly distributed throughout the mixture
heterogeneous mixture
a mixture in which different materials can be distinguished easily and no two portions will be exactly alike
mixture
consisting of two or more substances mixed together with physical means (such as stirring or blending) not with chemical bonding.