77 terms

Exam 1 Islam


Terms in this set (...)

Ahl al-bayt
"Family of the House" Referenced on page 64.

This was the title given to the descendants of Muhammad the Prophet, a group revered by the Shi'i sect of Islam as being the true caliphs.

Several rulers, including Isma'il of the Safavids, claimed to be part of this group to gain political sway among the Shi'as.
Anatolia peninsula
Called Asia Minor or "Lesser Asia" by the Romans, Anatolia is the Asian part of modern Turkey. It was one of the great crossroads of ancient civilizations, this broad peninsula that lies between the Black and Mediterranean Seas. It is significant to our class because the Ottomans started here as one of many little tribes.
Literally meaning soldiers, the askeri were The Ottoman elite; included the Janissaries, "slave" viziers, sipahi cavalrymen, ulama, religious judges, and free-born Ottoman-speaking bureaucratic officials. The askeri were exempt from taxation and formed a self-conscious military elite, speaking the court dialect and observing well known norms of behavior and etiquette. The privileged class the askeri formed greatly contrasted the re'aya (the tax-paying class) in many ways. The askeri's significance lies in the amount of power they held in the Ottoman decision-making processes, as well as how the similar Mughal military-bureaucratic personnel similarly functioned in this form of bureaucracy (Dale 59-60).
Beğliks are small Turkish principalities that began in central and western Anatolia as the Byzantine defenses crumbled before opposition by the Saljuq and Ogham. An example of a Beğlik is the Saljuq state at Konya. They are really significant to the Ottoman Empire because the Ottomans were one of many beğliks. (Dale, Page 41)
Black sheep
The black sheep were the Qara Quyunlu, a Turkish tribe based near Tabriz. They are important because, along with the white sheep, they represent the "chapter in Turkish history that was dominated by tribes. The black sheep were dominant from 1378 till around the 1450's when the white sheep "displaced" them.
The word "Caliph" means successor or deputy. It refers to the successors of Muhammad after his death in 632. Caliph eventually came to imply the religious and political leader of the Islamic community: the caliphate. Key caliphs and caliphates to consider are those of the Rashidun and the Abbasids. Please also consider the differences between caliph and sultan, and their relationships during our period of study.
Chinggis Qan
- Also known as Genghis Khan, Mongol conqueror of vast territories, including much of the Islamic World

- His grandson Hulegu Khan overthrew the Abbasid dynasty, creating a power vacuum in the Islamic world that was filled by the three empires we will be studying in the course.

-He was born in 1162 and died in 1227.
dar al-Islam
Defined in the book as the zone of Muslim sovereignty, it is any area that is under Islamic rule

Nearly every location we discuss in class will be a part of, or will have been a part of, this zone.
Devshirme System
Created around the late fourteenth century and early fifteenth centuries when the Ottomans needed a greater number of slaves. The system mandated that one young boy from every forty households in Christian villages within conquered territories would be taken as a slave and either trained for service or sent to be enrolled as a Janissary. The janisarries that came from this system could rise to the top, become a leader or adviser. The slaves that came from this system help us characterize Ottoman society at this time, showing a way in which the empire organized its military.
"Protected People" (also called Zimmis, or Ahl-i Kitab "People of the Book) pg 26.

These were the titles of protected, non-muslim religious groups: the communities they lived in were generally fairly autonomous. These communities are called "Millats" or "Millets." While the Quran only specifies Jews and Christians as part of this group, the Delhi Sultanate extended this idea to the Hindus, Buddhist, Jains, and several others.

This idea is important because it shows that Islam was an open-minded culture; their scriptures themselves call for respect towards other religious groups. This idea can be easily obscured by the modern, American view of Islamic culture.
Empires are a political configuration, possessing extensive territories. Empires are either expansionist (conquering other areas and incorporating them) or used to be expansionist. Empires possess diverse populations and frequently rule through "politics of difference." More narrow definitions of "empire" that are also relevant to our course include "Muslim/Islamic Empire," "Gunpowder Empire," "Early Modern Empires."
Gaza signifies wars against non-Muslims: heroic warfare on the Muslim frontiers.

In considering how Gaza is important to our course, consider the Gaza/Gazi narrative, and also the concept of holy warfare/raiding more generally.
Ghazan Il-Khan
A Mongolian ruler that was converted to Islam, born in 1271 died in 1304. pg 46.

Unlike previous Mongol rulers, Ghazan attempted to reform the Mongols' administration by systematizing taxes and consolidating the mongols into a sedentary people. Again unlike his predecessors, Ghazan began the persecution of non-islamic people groups; something that was incredibly uncommon among the earlier leaders of islamic states.

This is important because, while Ghazan was not born a muslim, he did convert to it and proceeded to disregard one of the tenants of previous rulers. This likely caused dramatic enmity between the major religions of the region.
A Muslim frontier warrior

Mahmud considered himself as a ghazi, because he led expeditions in India to spread the Sunni faith

In thinking about the importance of Ghazis/Ghaza, refer back to class on September 6, as well as the Ghaza key term.
ghulams (mamluks)
Turkic slaves trained to perform for local dynasties whose rulers sought to organize a dependable army, loyal solely to the reigning sultan. Military slaves.

In some cases Ghluams, (notably the Ghaznavids) became threats to the dynasties that trained them, establishing Muslim "slave" sultans (Dale 16).
"Unorthodox or extremist" Dale, p 69. This is an important term because Shi'i clergy tended to describe Isma'il's combination of Shi'ism, messianism and sufi tactics as "Ghuluww".
Compilation of sayings and actions of Muhammad

The hadith form a large basis of Islamic religious practice and study.
Haidar was the son and successor of Junaid. Haidar was the leader of the Safavid order until his death in 1488. After succeeding his father, Haidar continued in furthering his father's military activities in transforming the Safavid order into a Militant religio-political movement.

Haidar was evidently a Shi'a to a certain degree, despite the fact of being raised in the Sunni Aq Quyunlu court. He was married to one of Uzun Hasan's daughters.

Haidar died fighting in the Caucasus.
hajj: a spiritual pilgrimage to Mecca performed as one of the five pillars of faith of Islam.

The hajj is the sacred journey to Mecca that all able bodied muslims are expected to take at least once in their life. The hajj is a unifying force, it was a contributor to the cultural identity of the Islamic world that brought people together. Even today it brings thousands of Muslims together every year.
Ibn' Arabi
Ibn 'Arabi (full name Andalusian Muhammad Ibn al-'Arabi) lived from 1165 to 1240 and was one of the most influential Sufis in history. Also known as the al-shaikh al akbar (the greatest master), he was influential for his belief that "God is the sole reality" (Dale 13) or wahdat al-wujud which means "the unity of being". His writings and ideas influenced Muslims in Anatolia, Iran and India.

Ibn 'Arabi is a significant figure in this course because his contributions to the Sufi religion helped to diversify Sufism from the Shi'i and Sunni religions.
Imam, which most literally means "to stand in front of" in Arabic, is a leader who is selected by the Muslim community, to lead worship services, prayers, and offer religous advice. Imams must be existing Muslims, only male, and are tyically selected based on being the most wise or knowledgeable about the Quran and the faith in general.

In thinking about how this term is important for our course, consider some of the differences between Imams and Ulama more broadly and Sufi leaders.
The best definition I found of a federation is "a group of states with a central government but independence in internal affairs" (Oxford Dictionaries)

•An example of a federation that the text gave is Switzerland. Most countries in the world are federations reaching on nearly every continent including most of Europe, Africa, and a big chunk of Asia.
Subordinates are the "loyal" subjects of an empire. They are the many individuals that are aggregated by an Empire into groups, classes, and workers.
•An example of a subordinate would be a farmer in an empire that pays taxes to the Imperial Regime.
Empire of liberty
Thomas Jefferson's definition of America as an empire. Through the process of creating "states" in conquered territories, America maintained a reputation apart from the label of a traditional empire.

This is a significant concept that has had a significant impact on modern American foreign philosophy. There is a generally held belief amongst citizens that America stands alone. Americans strive to commit themselves to a higher standard that in turn inspires the humanitarian efforts and spreading of capitalism to the world.
Fragmentation of Empires
The effort of an Empire to create a unipolar state that instills universal culture and uniformed political hierarchy.

This was practiced by the Roman Empire and has had a lasting influence on the identity of european nations. Following the collapse of Rome numerous kings and rulers attempted to recreate the empire of Rome. The people of Europe continued to identify themselves as the descendants of the Roman empire; the power and widespread influence of Rome has inspired countless leaders throughout history to attain the glory that was Rome.
Iqta's were grants of the right to collect taxes from a particular piece of land, and to keep those taxes in lieu of a salary. Iqta's were used by Muslim rulers, in areas ranging from the Abbasid Caliphate to Il-Khanid controlled Iran. Peasants who worked the land were not subjects of the Iqta' holder, but instead of the Sultan, unlike in European feudalism. This style of taxation generated land revenue that provided most of the funds used by the Delhi Sultans to support their army, the largest state expense.
He was the founder of the Safavid dynasty. He gathered support by claiming Aq Quyunlu descent. He appealed to his illiterate Turkic tribal followers in verse, including the Afshar and Qajar tribes whose descendants became ruling dynasties in Iran after the Safavid empire. In the poems, Isma-il praises 'Ali over Muhammad and claims descent from Ali through his son, Husain. He presents himself in a dual religious role as being both Shi'a and Sufi. His legitimizing propaganda reflects the religious environment of his audience. (Dale p 68) He solidified his relations with various tribes by marrying his sisters to tribal leaders (like early Ottoman sultans had also done).

His commitment to Shi'a Islam was apparent after he and his followers seized Tabriz from Aq Quyunlu relatives in 1501. He began spreading and institutionalizing Shi'ism in the country whose population was mostly Sunni. Through his conquests, Isma'il was reconstituting the Aq Quyunlu state. His ultimate focus in these conquests was eastern Anatolia. Isma'il's actions scared the Ottoman's, who later spread the idea that he was a heretic.
- Ottoman slave soldiers that were taken from their Christian families as children and brought up as Sunni Muslims

- Janissaries were a very important component of the Ottoman army, and later began to wield substantial political power.

Please also consider when Janissaries were used in the Ottoman Empire, and be prepared to compare them to other military soldiers.
Generally meaning holy war, but can also mean striving or great effort, even expended ideologically or philosophically. It generally means a holy war against non-Muslims: Gaza specifically refers to expanding the zone of Muslim sovereignty.
Jizya is the special tax levied on non-Muslims ex: Jews, Christians. This tax was levied by almost all Islamic empires as a realistic and profitable solution to their large non-Muslim populations. Rather than trying to convert or eradicate non-Muslims, rulers simply taxed them and gained a large and much needed center of revenue.
Imperial Law of the sultan

Supplemented Shari'a in the Ottoman Empire
- scholars in the religious hierarchy. This is important because it shows that intelligence is a key factor is social status and power in the Muslim Empire

Also it is important to think through the differences between the ulama and sufi pirs or masters. Consider the relationship between the ulama and the government as well.
Shari'a Law
Islamic Law

Why would Islamic law specifically be important for our empires? When does it apply and when does it not apply?

Perso-Islamic Culture (p. 28): The pre-Islamic and Islamic culture of Iran expressed in Persian. It was established among the literate Muslim population in the fourteenth century and is best exemplified through Nizam al-Din and Amir Khusrau Dihlavi.

Please consider how this type of culture is important for our empires, which empires participate in this culture, and how it shapes the dynamics of each empire specifically.
Ibn Khaldun
Greco-Islamic philosophical historian

•Very famous philosophical historian who used Aristotle's methods to attempt to explain the life cycles of dynasties.
•His way of thinking led to a new way of understanding empires in a way which examines the deeper social/political/psychological factors.
The Sufi hospice or chapter house pioneered by the Khurasanian Abu Sa'yid ibn Abi'l Khair. This was used to help Sufism gain popular influence throughout broad territory.
"Sinner," The pseudonym that Shah Isma'il took when writing poetry. (Dale 68)

Isma'il used his poetry to espouse his legitimacy as a descendant of Muhammad, as the Shi'i Imam, and to rally Shi'i groups to his leadership.
Madrasas: Islamic theological colleges

Madrasas were centers of learning that spread all across the Islamic world. These centers of learning were often times the source of new political and philosophical thought. Madrasas are an example of how advanced Islamic society was.

In thinking about madrasas, remember issues of state patronage, and the connections between learning and the government as well.
An individual who would restore justice and true religion to the Islamic World, or bring about the second coming. In considering the importance of this term for our course, think about who or which group are interested in this concept, or apply it to themselves.
Mansabdars, "those who held (dar) imperially granted ranks or offices" (Dale 59) in the Mughal Empire paralleled Sipahis in the early Ottoman Empire. Mansabdars were given land or salaries from the Mughal Emperor in exchange for performing military or bureaucratic tasks. They were not taxed, in contrast to the "re'aya" or the "'amm", peasants and common people in the Ottoman and Muhgal Empires respectively.

In considering their importance to our course, think not just about the roles the mansabdars performed but what they show us about how empires work, both in comparison with the other empires discussed in this course and more generally.
Mehmet II
The son of Murad II, Mehmet II, also known as Mehmet the Conqueror, was known for his many conquests following his father's notable successful campaigns that augmented Ottoman power. His most notable conquering was fulfilling the Muslim community's dream of taking Constantinople in a 54 day siege. This conquest primarily, along with the other conquests of Mehmet II, make him very significant in the history of the Ottoman Empire, as Constantinople served as a major trade and geographical advantage (Dale 62).
Mulk-i 'Ajam
Phrase used by Isma'il meaning the "state" or "kingdom of Iran." Evidence that he may have seen himself as a political heir of the Aq Quyunlu
As Dale describes, Murids are generally students of religion, particularly in the Sufi tradition: i.e. students of murshids. (Dale, 296)

They are significant to our course because they formed a key segment of supporters for the Safavid order (if not the Safavid dynasty).
Murshid is an Arabic word for "teacher" or "spiritual guide". Often associated with attributes as integrity and spiritual maturity, these men were the religious leaders to whom the laymen Sufis (called Murids) would pledge a spiritual allegiance to in attempt to learn and gain knowledge under them.
A tribe of Sufis whose pirs were closely allied with Timurid rulers. They preached a restrained mystical doctrine, engaged in politics, and intermarried with the ruling elite. (pg 66). They are important because they exerted influence in the Il-Khanid court, as well as the Il-Khanid Mongols.
Nizam al-Mulk
Nizam al-Mulk was the Regulator of State for the Saliuqs. He was an Iranian, a Persian scholar, and a Muslim. Nizam was influential during his time as a prime minister, and well known for his strengthening of Sunni Islam and condemning of Shi'i Islam. He was eventually assassinated under the orders a Fatimid agent in Iran.

During his lifetime Nizam al-Mulk was instrumental in the creation of several madrasas (theological colleges). The most famous of these madrasas was called Nizamiyyas, constructed in Bagdad in 1047.
The Oghuz are a confederation of Turkic tribes, originally from Mawarannahr. It is important to remember which dynasties descend from the Oghuz, the role played by Oghuz tribesmen in the expansion of various dynasties, and to contrast Turkic tribesmen, like the Oghuz, with Persianized bureaucrats.
Osman is known as the founder of the Ottoman Empire. Osman Gazi was born in 1258 in the town of Sogut. He had a dream that was said to mean that God had made him and his descendants imperial rulers. Osman was the first sultan of the Ottomans.

In thinking about his importance, also consider what we know about him and how we know that information. You should also be able to identify and describe the importance of his son Orhan: where they came from, approximately when they lived, and how they came to power.
This Mongol term loosely means "tribe", however, it is not dependent on a ethnic distinction but differentiates nomadic and semi nomadic peoples of multiple ethnic backgrounds from agricultural groups.
Isma'il proclaimed himself as a "Padishah" as a way to describe his status in Iran. By doing this he was repeating Iranian political/geographical terminology that had been recently revived by the mongols and used by the Aq Quyunlus.

This is significant because this shows that Isma'il thought of himself as a political heir of the Aq Quynlus. Also, Isma'ils rule was a turning point for Iran.
Persian Renaissance
The Persian Renaissance occurred through poets, artists and administrators who developed a new Persian culture. The renaissance influenced all aspects of life and left legacies for the Ottoman, Saffavid, and Mongal Empires.

This is important to the course because Persian Culture impacted the literature, philosophy and science of the time.
A pir is a Sufi master or teacher. The word shaikh can also be used as a synonym for pir, but shaikh can also refer to tribal leaders, or as a respectful title. (Dale, 296)
Isma'il's tribal followers. Called "redheads" because of their turbans which featured red batons.

In defining and considering the importance of the Qizilbash, please include references to their religious and political role in the Safavid Empire.
Rumi (full name Iranian Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi) lived from 1207 to 1273. Rumi was and is best known for his Persian-language devotional poetry (Dale 13). Rumi is one of the more important Sufis in history because of the influence his writings had on the development of Sufism. Along with Ibn 'Arabi, his ideas and writings influenced Muslims from Anatolia to Iran and India.
The Saljuqs refers to two Oghuz dynasties, the Great Saljuqs and the Saljuqs of Rum. The Great Saljuqs controlled different areas of Mawarannahr, Iran and Iraq. from 1038-1194. The Saljuqs of Rum lasted from 1077-1307, drawing their name from their defeat of a Byzantine emperor. They controlled much of Anatolia.

It is important to remember how the Saljuqs changed the demographic composition of Anatolia, and some of their key administrators and tactics of administration.
Selim is an important figure in Ottoman history because he destroyed the Safavid army shattering Isma ill's confidence.

This is significant to the course because the Ottoman victory prevented the Saffavids from controlling Eastern Anatolia and pushed them back to the Iranian borders.
The Shah-nama or "book of kings" was a poem by Firdausi relates the battles, personal conflicts, and infatuations of pre-Islamic Iranian monarchs. It became a classic work of literature of the Iranian people, and a model for later stories and versus about rulers in Iran, India, Anatolia, and Mawarannahr. The book of kings was held in so high regard that it was almost considered as culturally important as the Quran.
Shaikh Safi al-Din
Shaikh Safi al-Din (1252-1334) was the founder of the Safavid order. A Sunni/Sufi pir, he was born wealthy, and increased his wealth particularly after Ghazan Khan converted to Islam and started patronizing the Safavid order.

In considering his importance to our course, think about what the Safavid order itself was like, how it relates to the Safavid dynasty and how the order shaped the way the dynasty and the empire functioned.
Islamic Religious law. Used as the basis for a multitude of actions through society and can be incorporated into imperial rule. For example, the Ottoman's used shari'a as the basis for discrimination and further laws pertaining to discrimination against non-Muslims, such as Jews and Christians, to wear simple clothing and not be able to be more prosperous than Muslims (Dale 57)
The Shi'a people were a group of Muslims, found today in Lebanon, Yemem, Iraq, Iran as well as other areas. In the10th through 12th century, a Shi'i dynasty controlled territory in the Egyptian region. Shi'as do not recognize the legitimacy of the first three Caliphs, believing the fourth caliph, 'Ali should have been first. In twelver Shi'ism, 12 Imams are recognized as legitimate descendants of Ali. Isma'lis are Shi'i Muslims who believe there were seven rather than twelve official Imams.

Shi'ism puts much more importance on clergy than Sunni Islam does, as well as the idea of clergy having divine inspiration. Keep in mind which dynasties are part of which sect of Islam and how that sect affects the way each dynasty rules.
prostration, demand for semi-divine respect abhorrent to most Sunni, but appropriate for Sufi pirs and Shi'a Imams. Important because Isma'il used to link himself to religious and political traditions that would evoke a sympathetic murmur in his audience.(pg 69)
Cavalrymen, horseback. These cavalrymen were the majority of Osman's troops. He supported them through a type of military feudalism, granting them small plots of land. The Sipahi were a part of the military class, and a part of the Ottoman elite. As a part of the elite, they were exempt from taxes and were distinguished from the common peoples of society (Dale 58 and 59)
Nizam al-Mulk composed a written work titled Siyasat-nama, "Book of Government" which was a work that Nizam al-Mulk wanted to leave for his Saljuq predecessors on the important points of a successful autocratic regime. He expressly states that the it is necessary to appease the diverse populations, specifically the Orghuz tribe, and the issues arising from ruling independent groups of people. He also discussed issues that regard rulers that try to transform their state from a singular, culturally centered, tribal dynasty into a more centralized, encompassing, sedentary state (Dale, Page 34-35)
A popular form of Islam that influenced the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal Empires.

Sufis deemphasized traditional public worship in mosques in favor of individual study with a religious teacher who could guide or inspire in them a passionate love for God. Their signature trait was the idea of a reciprocal love of mankind for God and God for mankind.

Often wrote poems that were meant to be sung and worship ranged from more conservative and restrained to very exotic leading to it being condemned by many ulama (or those learned in Islamic knowledge and practice)
Defined as: An evocative term derived from the Arabic root signifying power. They were independent Muslim dynasts that derived their authority solely from military prowess. Most sultans were found in Anatolia, Iran, and India. A majority were Turks, although Iranians and Afghans also formed their own dynasties. Most sultans were also of the Sunni religion (Dale).
•The sultans are significant in that they contributed the political fragmentation found in the era from the tenth to the sixteenth century in India, Iran, and Anatolia and many of their ideals such as being monarchs first and Muslims second, as well as taxing non-Muslims, were also shared by leaders of the Ottoman, Mughal, and Safavid empires.
Sufi buildings of worship: can also be a hospice and is also usually a meeting house (Dale 295).
Temur/ Timurids
Temur, lived 1336-1405, also known as Timur or Tamerlane, was a military adventurer of Turco-Mongol origins, and founder of the Timurid dynasty He conquered Transoxania, Persia, Khorasan, as well as areas of Iraq, India, Azerbaijan, and Armenia and others, making Samarkand (in modern day Uzbekistan) his capital. The Timurid dynasty lasted from the 15th through the 16th centuries. It is important to remember the prestige of the Timurids and their lineage, and how they characterize broader themes we have discussed during the 10-16th century, and within the areas of Iran, India and Anatolia.
The Il-Khanid Mongols
Founded by a grandson of Chinggis Qan (Ghengis Khan), the Il-Khans controlled Iran from 1256-1355, ending the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad in 1258. Key aspects of the Il-Khans to keep in mind are the transition from nomadic, pagan raiders to sedenterized, Islamic dynasts.
A timar is land grant given by the Ottoman sultan: the tax revenue taken from the timar by a sipahi would then become the sipahi's salary. A method used by the Ottoman empire to support their military and to collected taxes.

In terms of its significance to our course, think about how this type of taxation affects the Ottoman's military, when it works and when it doesn't work.
Known for being the third ethnic& linguistic presence in the Islamic world. From 10th century onwards they ruled Muslim territories and high a high military and political influence. This term is significant for this course because the Turks had a very high influence on Islamic and other empires.
Defined as: The collective clerical class, consisting of theologians, mosque personnel, religious teachers and religious judges. They were those so-called "learned" in Islamic knowledge. Many 'ulama were Sufis, however many openly vexed Sufism due to the lack of respect Sufis showed to their teachers and the use of music in the Sufi worship. The 'ulama also feared the philosophies that Sufism brought about and how Sufism could challenge the "revealed religion" (Dale).
•The 'ulama were very important in the Islamic empires we are studying as they consist of the community of Islamic people within the Ottoman, Mughal, and Safavid empires, and their opinions on matters of religion, such as the practice of Sufism, were significant.
•In considering the importance of Ulama, keep in mind their relationship to the state, and as well as their relationship to Sufis.
Umma refers to the Islamic community of believers.
Uzun Hasan
Was the son who emerged victorious in struggle for power over the Oghuz clan known as Aq Quyunlu (1453). The struggle of power branched from his father's death (Qara 'Usman').

Uzun Hasan was a Sunni Muslim and conquered lands such as territory in Georgia, Kurdistan in eastern Anatolia, and northwestern and central Iran.

Prior to his defeat defeat by the Ottomans (1473), he transformed his clan into a major Perso-Islamic principality, and he was claimed to be "Sultan of the Ghazis," by the Persian Language poet Jami (died 1492), for his exploits against the Georgian Christians.
Adviser to the sultan in the Ottoman Empire

Were often slaves
wahdat al-wujud
Defined in the book that God is the sole reality or "the unity of being".

This phrase was created by Ibn 'Arabi, in his poetry making his idea well known due to his very popular devotional poetry
White sheep
A dominant dynasty in northwestern Iran and eastern Anatolia during the 14th through the early 16th century, the Aq Quyunlu, turks from the Oghuz tribal federation. Relevant because the Safavid empires' leader Isma'il was a matrilineal descendant of this dynasty, which gave the Safavid empire a significant political lineage in terms of legitimizing their power.
The yasaq is a traditional body of unwritten laws. The yasaq was cited by Qara 'Usman to stress his nomadic heritage and warn about the corrupting influences of city life.
Zahir al-Din Muhammad Babur
The founder of the Mughal dynasty, he lived from 1483-1530. Descended from both the Timurids and Chinggis Qan, Babur conquered large areas of Afghanistan and Northern India.

In considering his importance for our course, think about how he is similar to/different from the founders of the Safavid and Ottoman Empires, his family, his religion and also his writigins.