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164 terms

Behavioral Analysis Midterm

STUDY
PLAY
Behavior Chain
Specific sequence of discrete responses, each associated with a particular stimulus condition; ex: vending machine
Behavior Chain with Limited Hold
must be preformed correctly within a specified amount of time; ex: atm machine
5 Dimensions of Shaping
1.Topography
2.Frequency
3.Latency
4.Duration
5.Amplitude/Magnitude
4 Types of Chaining
1.Forward Chaining
2.Total-Task Chaining
3.Backward Chaining
4.Backward Chaining with Leaps Ahead
Forward Chaining
taught in naturally occurring order
Total-Task Chaining
uses forward chaining, steps trained in every session
Backward Chaining
begins with last step of a chain
Backward Chaining with Leaps Ahead
begins with last step, not every step is taught
Behavior Chain Interruption Strategy (BCIS)
commonly used during mand training; taking a certain piece away so subject must ask for it to complete task
Task Analysis
Breaks down these steps into a discrete unit
Conditioned Reinforcement
when behavior is strengthened by events that have an effect because of conditioned history
Conditioned Reinforcer
When an arbitrary event increases the frequency of an operant
Generalized Reinforcement
doesn't depend on deprivation or satiation; ex: praise, attention, affection, approval, status
generalized conditioned reinforcer
any even of stimulus that's associated with or exchangeable for, many sources of primary reinforcement
Generalized Conditioned Reinforcement
Generalized reinforcement does not depend on deprivation or satiation for any specific reinforcer
Establishing Conditioned Reinforcement
1.New-response method
2.Established-response method:
New-response method
Pairing a distinctive stimulus (a clicking sound) with unconditioned reinforcement; after several pairings, present the stimulus alone and use to shape a new response
Established-response method
operant that produces unconditioned reinforcment accompanied by distinctive stimulus
Menus
Using a menu where the participant can choose their reward is very effective
Homogeneous Chains
Operant chains when a similar response requirement is in effect in all components.
Heterogeneous chain
requires different responses in each link
Chain schedule of reinforcement
Two or more simple schedules;Each of which is presented sequentially and has own SD; final or terminal link in this chain results in primary reinforcement
___ ___ does function as a conditioned reinforcer; ___ ___ does not
1.Good news
2.bad news
Frequency of Primary Reinforcement
As unconditioned reinforcement frequency goes up, strength ofconditioned reinforcer increases to a maximum
Variability of Primary Reinforcement
A more varying unconditioned reinforcement will increase effectiveness of conditioned reinforcer
Establishing Operations
Events that establish an unconditioned reinforcement will enhance the effectiveness of a conditioned reinforcer
Delay to Primary Reinforcement
On a chain schedule, longer delay between discriminative stimulus and unconditioned reinforcement, less effective it is as a conditioned reinforcer.
Delay-reduction hypothesis (DRH)
Stimuli closer in time to positive reinforcement, or further in time from an aversive event, are more effective conditioned reinforcers
Biological Context
Behavioral principles of conditioning- universal; differ from species to species - different species have different prepared responses; conditioning is biological process
Operant/Respondent Interactions
defined by experimental producers that produce them; intrusion of reflexive behavior can occur during operant conditioning; often embedded in arrangement of operant contingencies
Respondent Responses can ___ Operant Conditioning
Redominate
4 types of respondent responses
1. Instinctive Drift
2. Sign Tracking
3. Autoshaping
4. Negative Automaintenance
Instinctive Drift
behavior is said to drift toward behavioral roots; species characteristic behavior patterns that become progressively more invasive during training
Sign Tracking
a sign that signals a biologically relevant event
Autoshaping
ex: if food is delivered contingent upon a peck, elicited peck can be operantly reinforced
Negative Automaintenance
respondent contingency of sing followed by food delivery is in place but an actual peck to the lit response key cancels food delivery for that trial
Adjunctive Behavior
on certain schedules, an organism may emit behavior patterns that aren't required by contingency of reinforcement; ex: batting routines
Using Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior
reinforcing a different behavior than the target and the collateral effect of that reinforcement contingency on the target behavior
Differential Reinforcement
reinforcement is provided for responses that share a predetermined dimension or quality (functionally equivalent); reinforcement withheld for responses that don't demonstrate predetermined quality (extinction); response differentiation: emergence of new response class (replacement behavior)
5 types of differential reinforcement
1. incompatible behavior (DRI)
2.Alternative Behavior (DRA)
3. Other Behavior (DRO)
4. Low Rate Behavior (DRL)
5. High Rate Behavior (DRH)
DRI & DRA
reinforcement schedule which occurrence of behavior topographically incompatible with target behavior is selected for reinforcement
Alternative Behaviors in DRI & DRA...
already exist in repertoire; requires equal or less effort; occurrence rate allow for opportunities for reinforcement; likely to be reinforced in natural environment
DRO
Reinforcement contingent upon non-occurrence of problem behavior; essentially reinforcing any & every behavior other than target; based on time schedule
Never use ___ without using ___ ___
1. extinction
2. Differential Reinforcement
2 types of DRO
1. Interval DRO
2. Momentary DRO
2 types of Interval DRO
1. Fixed-Interval DRO
2. Variable-Interval DRO
Variable-Interval DRO
Interval of time are varying and unpredictable, random delivery
Fixed-Interval DRO
establish an time interval; deliver reinforcement at end of interval if problem behavior didn't occur
2 types of Momentary DRO
1. Fixed-Momentary DRO
2.Variable-Momentary DRO
Guidelines for using DRO
Recognize limitations; set initial intervals that assure frequent reinforcement; don't accidentally reinforce other undesirable behaviors; gradually increase interval; combine DRO procedures; extend application to other settings & times of day
DRL
Schedule of reinforcement that produced low rates of responding; contingent upon occurrence of target behavior
3 types of DRL Schedules
1. Full Session
2.Interval
3.Spaced-Responding
Full-Session DRL
reinforcement delivered at end of session, if behavior occurred at set criterion
Interval DRL
divide session into intervals
Spaced-Responding DRL
reinforcement is delivered following occurrence of a behavior following specified time interval
Extinction
Process of discontinuing a reinforcement contingency for a previously reinforced response; behavior that was previously reinforced eventually decreases/stops
In extinction we do not ___ ___ __ ___; we discontinue the ___ ___
1. stop reinforcing a behavior
2. reinforcing contingency
We do not extinguish ___; we extinguish the ___, in a specific context
1.people
2.behavior
Extinction Burst
an initial increase in rate of response when reinforcement is first discontinued
Response Topography
increase in operant variability or variations in form or topography as extinction proceeds
Behavioral Effects of Extinction
1. Emotional Responses
2. Resistance to extinction
Spontaneous Recovery
after a session of extinction, response rate may be close to operant level
Forgetting vs. Extinction
Forgetting is behavior change due to passage of time without opportunity to perform behavior; Extinction is behavior change due to response performance without reinforcement
Respondent Extinction
presenting CS without or no longer in relationship with the US
Topography vs. Function
not the function of a behavior that can be a problem, but the topography; necessary to create an equivalent replacement behavior
Non-Contingent Reinforcement
reinforcement is delivered after a fixed or variable amount of time regardless of behavior
Partial Reinforcement Effect (PRE)
generates greater resistance to extinction (resistance to change)
Behavioral Momentum
behavior persisting in the presence of a particular stimulus despite disruptive factors
Progressive Schedules of Reinforcement
systematically thins each successive reinforcement opportunity independent of the participants behavior
Escalating Schedules of Reinforcement
systematically increases reinforcement contingent on behavior
Compound/Complex Schedules
Two or more schedules are combined, animals and humans are sensitive to such complexities
Concurrent Schedule of Reinforcement (CONC)
when (a) 2 or more contingencies of reinforcement (b) operate independently and simultaneously (c) for 2 or more behaviors
Discriminative Schedules of Reinforcement- Multiple
present 2 or more basic schedules in an alternating, random sequence, occur successively and independently, SD is correlated w/ each basic schedule and presented as long as schedule is in effect
Non-discriminative Schedules of Reinforcement - mixed
identical to multiple schedules, except the mixed has no discriminative stimuli correlated with independent schedules
ex: thinking while driving
Chained Schedules of Reinforcement
similar to multiple; except: basic schedules occur in specific order, behavior may be same for all elements of chain or different behaviors required for different elements, conditioned reinforcement for first behavior in chain is presentation of second element, etc.
Tandem Reinforcement Schedules
similar to chained schedule except dosen't have discriminative stimulus
Differential Reinforcement
reward is contingent on performing behavior within specific period of time
ex: due dates for classes
Schedule of Reinforcement
a prescription that states how and when discriminative stimuli and behavioral consequences will be presented
Time and responses are important in schedules or reinforcement:
long term arrangement: temporal dynamics, rate and temporal patterns of responding, probability of responding
Rule for presentation of stimuli that precede operants and consequences
fundamental determinants of behavior, basis for behavioral economics & pharmacology
3 ways to use schedules
1. Application
2. Analysis
3. Synthesis
Application
ask questions about behavior, change behavior
Analysis
make sense of behavior
Synthesis
Create new behavior
Patterns of response
develop on schedules of reinforcement; come about after animal has experience w. the contingency of reinforcement defined by particular schedule
Subjects are exposed to a schedule of reinforcement following an ___ period and behavior typically settles into a ___ or ___-___ ____
1. acquisition
2. consistent
3. Steady-State Performance
5 Response based schedules of reinforcement
1. Fixed Ratio
2. Variable Ratio
3. Random Ratio
4.Progressive Ratio
2 Time & Response Based Schedules
1. Fixed Interval
2. Variable Interval
Fixed time schedule of reinforcement
reinforcer is delivered after a set amount of time regardless of behavior
Superstitious Behavior
behaving as if a specific response is required to produce reinforcement; FR
Continuous Reinforcement (CRF)
reinforcement is delivered after every response; necessary for shaping and maintaining a difficult behavior
Intermittent Behavior (IRF)
More resistant to extinction (amount of time before behavior is extinguished)
Fixed Ratio Schedule (FR)
delivers reinforcement after a fixed number of responses is make; cumulative record of behavior looks like stairs
FR schedules produce...
rapid run of responses followed by reinforcement, then a pause in responding
Post-reinforcement pause (PRP)
name of pause after consumption of renfrocer and before next ratio of responding begins; plat part of cumulative record
The length of the ___ is proportionate to the length of the ___
1.PRP
2.Interval
Variable Ratio Schedule (VR)
number of responses required for reinforcement changes after each reinforcer is presented; average # of responses used to define schedule; high rate of response
Ratio Schedule Implications
possible to set ratio so high that an animal will spend all of its time working for a small reinforcer
ex: gambling
Fixed Interval Schedule (FI)
an operant is reinforced after a fixed amount of time has passed; scalloping
Scalloping
characteristic pattern of responding in FI, gradual increase in rate of responding, with responding occurring at a high rate, just before reinforcement is available
Variable Interval schedule (VI)
responses are reinforced after a variable amount of time has passed. The time for each reinforcement changes but there is an average time
3- Term Contingency
Antecedent- Behavior- Consequence
Discriminative Stimuli (SD)
increases frequency of type of response because stimuli has been learned to mean a higher chance of reinforcement
S-Delta
decrease in frequency of a type of response because stimuli has been learned to lead to punishment
Establishing/ Motivating Operation (EO/MO)
an environmental event that first establishes or abolishes the reinforcing or punishing effect of another event; evokes or abates behaviors related with that event
2 types of EO
1. Conditioned
2. Unconditioned
3 types of unconditioned EO
1. Surrogate
2. Reflexive
3. Transitive
Unconditioned EO
unlearned states of deprivation or aversion stimulation;
ex: thirst, hunger
Surrogate (CMO-S)
acquire motivating effect as result of being paired with another UMO, produce effects identical to original MO
Reflexive (CMO-R)
Previously neutral stimuli that acquire motivating functions by being correlated with some form of worsening or improvement
Transitive (CMO-T)
previously neutral stimuli whose occurrence alters the reinforcing or punishing effectiveness of another stimulus and evokes responses that produce or suppress that stimulus
3 Times Antecedents Matter
1. When they signal consequences
2. When they change the value of consequences
3. When they evoke/abate behavior
Antecedents ___ do not ___ behavior
1. alone
2. Cause
To understand antecedents you have to look for ___
Consequences
Antecedents without ___ are mere noise
consequences
If you cannot change ___... change antecedents related to those ___
consequences
Time Out
In order to be effective, time-in must be reinforcing, if so your creating deprivation of time-in
Blocked Response
attempting to teach an individual with ID to request items that are needed to complete activities; directly manipulating surrogate EO
Selection by Consequences
How we learn, trial and error
Law of Effect
you are more likely to engage in behavior that is followed by a reinforcing stimuli
Reinforcement
increase the likelihood of a behavior occurrence
3-Term Contingency
SD/S-delta - response - Consequence
Occasion - evoked/emitted - maintains
Behavior is ___ NOT ___
1. evoked/emitted
2. elicited
3 environmental stimuli that occasion behaviors
1. Establishing Operation (EO/MO)
2. Discriminative Stimuli (SD)
3. S- Delta
3 Defining features of DS and S-Delta
1. Momentary effectiveness of particular reinforcement type
2. Increases frequency of particular type of response
3. stimulus correlated w/ increase in frequency w/ which type of response has been followed by reinforcement
SD
sets the occasion for a behaviors occurrence ( signals availability of reinforcement) ; ex: a person, environment; individual engaging in the behavior
S-Delta
sets the occasion for a behavior NOT to occur; in presence of this stimulus, certain behaviors do not lead to reinforcement and may lead to punishment
Stimulus Control
responding in the presence of a discriminative stimulus; never responding in presence of s-delta
Satiation
State of being satisfied; decreases effectiveness of SD
Deprivation
lack of something necessary; increases effectiveness of a SD
Establishing Operation
any change in the environment that alters effectiveness of a object or event as reinforcement and simultaneously alters the momentary frequency of the behavior that's been followed by that reinforcement
4-Term Contingency *
EO - SD/S-delta - Response - Consequence
3 vs 4- Term Continency
4-term may involve some inference in the analysis; When EO directly manipulating, 4-term in necessary
Capturing EO
capitalizing on the effects of a naturally occurring EO in terms of reinforcement
Contriving EO
when one directly manipulates the environment to increase specific stimulus as a reinforcer
Topography
the form of the behavior
Functional Analysis
determining the consequence of the behavior. What is the contingency?
4 Basic Contingencies
1. Identify organism observed for behavior change
2. Identify specific behavior
3. What happens to the behavior?
4. What is the consequence?
4 Consequences
1. Positive Reinforcement
2. Negative Reinforcement
3. Positive Punishment
4. Negative Punishment
Positive reinforcement
add stimulus, increase behavior
ex: getting a drink from a vending machine
Negative reinforcement
remove adverse stimulus, increase behavior
ex: opening an umbrella to get out of the rain
Positive Punishment
Add stimulus, decrease behavior
Negative Punishment
remove adverse stimulus, decrease behavior
SD
Discriminative Stimulus; occasions behavior likely to be reinforced
Operant Class
behaviors which can produce same outcome
ex: opening a bag with hands or cutting bag open
Repertoire
everything an organism can do, collection of complex behaviors (behaviors are collections of responses)
Reinforcement Contingencies
relationship between the events that set the occasion fro behavior, the operant class, and the consequences that follow the behavior
ex: SD => B => C
You reinforce an ___ not an ___
1. behavior
2. organism
Only stimuli that ___ behavior are ___
1. increase
2.reinforcers
3 rules of reinforcers
1. vary across individuals
2. must be immediate
3. must be contingent
EO
1.Establishing Operation; momentarily increases effectiveness of reinforcement & increases likelihood of behaviors previously associated with reinforcement
2.deprivation or satiation
5 characteristics of reinforces
1. follows a behavior
2.increases frequency of behavior
3. if it's not produced by a behavior, it's temporary
4. they change
5. the frequency of reinforcement affects effectiveness
3 types of positive reinforcement
1. primary or unconditional
2. secondary or conditional
3. generalized
Differential Reinforcement
reinforcing behavior in one situation but not another
shaping
involves differential reinforcement of successive approximations
2 types of negative reinforcement
1. avoidance
2. escape
avoidance
don't contact the aversive situation due to engagement in a particular behavior; proactive
Escape
break free of an aversive situation based on engagement in a particular behavior; reactive
Non-contingent Reinforcement
providing access to reinforcer, regardless of behavior organism is engaged in; may increase undesired behavior
Premack Principle
A higher frequency behavior will function as reinforcement for a lower frequency behavior
Rate of response
# of responses in a specific interval
Operant rate
the probability of response
Free Operant
an unlimited number of opportunities to respond
Operant level
rate of responding before conditioning (baseline)