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a measured portion of medicine taken at any one time


Study of harmful chemicals and their effects on the body

dose-response curve

data that reveals how an organism responds to various doses


50% of the organisms are affected but do not die from the treatment


1/2 of the organisms die as a result of the dose


change from a solid directly to a gas

serial dilution

A method of measurement in which sucessive 1:10 dilutions are made from the original sample

natural toxicant

a toxic substance that occurs in nature


a structure, organ or tissue to which something is directed

mechanism of action

the means by which a drug produces an action leading to an effect


risk, particularly of being exposed to disease or toxic substance


Substance not produced by the living organism and which is not normally found in the living thing (foreign chemical)

route of exposure

The way in which an organism encounters a toxin

acute exposure

a short contact with a harmful substance

chronic exposure

repeated contact with a harmful substance


The process of determining the strength and quality of a drug by testing it on an animal or on an isolated organ.


the selective absorption and concentration of molecules by cells


any substance that causes injury or illness or death of a living organism

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