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Microbiology Chapter 5

MGCCC Instructor: Ryan
STUDY
PLAY
Metabolism is the collection of all _____________ reations which take place within an organism.
biochemical
Metabolic Process:
the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life
Microorganisms must aquire their nutrients from:
external environments (serves as raw material for metabolic reactions).
Metabolic reations require energy acquired from what 2 sources?
light OR catabolism
catabolism
breakdown of more complex substances into simpler ones with release of energy
How many precursor metabolites are formed through a minimum of 3 metabolic pathways?
12
what facilitates catabolic reations to form precursor metabolites?
enzymes
enzymes facilitate catabolic reations to form elementary building blocks called:
precursor metabolites
catabolic reactions store _______ in the chemical bonds of adenosine triphospates.
energy
Precursor metabolites and enzymes construct larger building blocks in what type of reactions?
anabolic
anabolic
A process in which large molecules are built from small molecules
anabolic reations, enzymes and energy link to form:
macromolecules
anabolic reactions, enzymes and energy link to form macromolecules in what type of reactions?
polymerization
cells grow by ASSEMBLING macromolecules into cellular structures such as:
ribosomes, membranes and cell walls.
cells grow by ____________ macromolecules into cellular structures.
assembling
once a cell has doubled its size it will:
reproduce
what ESSENTIAL nutrients must be obtained from external environments?
nitrogen, sulfer, phosphorus, oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen (HONCS)
Cells use what mechanisms to import nutrients?
transport
What types of transport systems do cells use?
simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport, and group translocation.
In what type of transport do nutrients move from one area of high to low concentration?
simple diffusion
In what type of transport requires a transmembrane transport protein to mediate the transfer of nutrients from an area of high to low concentration?
facilitated diffusion
what type of transport requires transmembrane transport protein which use ATP (energy) to transfer nutrients into the cell from an area of low to high concentration?
active transport
what type of transport system diffuses from low to high areas of concentration?
active transport
what type of transport requires that nutrients enter the cell by facilitated diffusion, followed by chemical modiciation and require energy?
group translocation
ATP is generated through:
phosphorylation
A process which requires inorganic phosphate is added to a molecule of ADP
phosphorylation
phosphorylation requires inorganic phosphate added to a molecule of:
ADP
phosplhorylation requires a molecule of ADP added to:
inorganic phosphate
What are the three ways of phosphorylation?
substrate level; oxidative; and photophosphorylation
phosphorylation that involves the transfer of phosphate to ADP from another phosphorylated organic compound:
substrate level
phosphorylation that occurs when energy from redox reactions of respiration used to attach inorganic phosphate to ADP
oxidative
phosphorylation that occurs when light energy is used to phosphorylate ADP with inorganic phosphate
photophosphorylation
what interconversion of ADP and ATP extists within a cell?
cyclical or constant
Catabolic pathways are a series of reactions which break down larger molecules into smaller molecules and release:
energy (ATP and heat)
the most common carbon and energy source for all living things
carbohydrates
the most common carbohydrate:
glucose
glucose is catabolized via what 2 processes?
cellular respiration or fermentation
first step in catabolism of glucose:
glycolysis (both cellular respiration or fermentation)
glycolysis
first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid
glycolysis involves splitting a _____ carbon glucose molecule into 2 three carbon molecules of _______________
6; pyruvic acid
glycolysis yeilds two molecules of NADH (potential energy) and six precursor __________ including glucose-6-phosphate and pyruvic acid.
metabolites
in glycolysis, 2 molecules of ATP are invested and 4 molecules of ATP are produced by:
sustrate-level phosphorylation
in glycolysis ____ molecules of ATP are invested and ______ molecules of ATP are produced.
2; 4
in glycolysis how many ATP molecules are gained per molecule of glucose?
2
in glycolysis, 2 molecules of ATP are gained per molecule of:
glucose
cellular respiration occurs in what three stages?
1. synthesis of acetyl-CoA;
2. the Kreb's cycle;
3. electron transport chain
during synthesis of acetyl-CoA, enzymes remove a carbon from each molecule of pyruvic acid as _________
carbon dioxide
in synthese of Acetyl-CoA, one molecule of ______ is generated per molecule of _______
NADH; pyruvic acid
During synthesis of acetyl-CoA join the remaining acetate molecule to _________ producing a molecule of _________
coenzyme A; acetyl-CoA
The Kreb's cycle occurs in the ______ of ________ cells and the matrix of _________ in ________ cells.
cytoplasm of prokaryotes; mitochondria of eukaryotes
Each turn of the Krebs cycle yeilds:
4 precursor metabolites; 1 molecule ATP; 3 molecules of NADH and 1 molecule of FADH2; and 2 molecules of carbon dioxide.
The electron transport chain is located where?
In the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes
In the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes
the electron transport chain consists of a sweries of membrane bound carrier molecules which pass ________ from one to another and ultimately to a final electron _______
electrons; acceptor
During the electron transport chain, _______ use oxygen and _______ use sulfate, nitrate, or carbon
aerobes; anaerobes
anaerobes use what for cellular respiration?
sulfate, nitrate or carbonate
where do electrons enter the electron transport chain?
different locations
what carries electrons in the electron transport chain?
NADH and FADH2
the energy of the electrons is used to pump protons across the membrane establishing:
a proton concentration gradient
a proton concentration gradient can be used to gereate ATP through a process called:
chemiosmosis
chemisomosis
proton concentration gradient used to generate ATP
protons flow down the electrochemical gradient through cannels called:
ATP synthesis
ATP synthesis phosphorylate molecules of ____ into ____
ADP to ATP
The electron transport chain yeilds about ______ molecules of ATP
34
The total production of ATP from a molecule of of glucose oxidized through cellular respiration in prokaryotes is: _______ in eukaryotes is______.
prokaryotes = 38 molecules of ATP
eukaryotes = 36 molecules of ATP
if the final electron acceptor is absent, sugar molecules can be partially oxidized through:
fermentation
fermintation is a form of ________ respiration
anaeorbic
micororganisms produce a variety of fermentation products as:
waste
three examples of fermentation waste:
lactic acid
alcohol
mixed acid
fermentation carried out by lactic acid bacteia
lactic acid fermentation
lactic acid fermentation begins with:
glycolysis
lactic acid fermentation begins with glycolysis and is followed by:
reduction of pyruvic acid into lactic acid
what kind of fermentation is characteristic of yeast?
alcohol
alcohol fermentation begins with?
glycolysis
alcohol fermentation begins with glycolysis, followed by:
conversion of pyruvic acid into ETHONOL and CARBON DIOXIDE using the NADH generated during glycolysis
alcohol fermentation converts pyruvic acid into:
ethonol and carbon dioxide
what type of fermentation is characteristic of E. coli?
mixed acid fermentation
mixed acid fermentaion begins with:
glycolysis
in mixed acid fermentation, pyruvic acid is converted to at least _____ different end products including:
1. lactic acid
2. acetic acid
3. formic acid
4. succinic acid
5. hydrogen gas
6. carbon dioxide
7. ethanol
what pathway is an alternate path between two points in glycolysis?
pentose phosphate
pentose phosphate is utilized to generate:
2 precursor metabolites
the 2 precursor metabolites in pentose phosphate cannot be generaged from:
glycolysis or the Krebs Cycle
the pentose phospate pathway in metabolism begins with:
glucose-6-phosphate
the pentose phospate pathway ends with:
phosphoglyceraldehyde
the pentose phosphate pathway yields:
2 precursor metabolites
2 molecules of NADPH
1 molecule of ATP
what pathways are a series of synthesis reations which utilize the products generated by catabolic reactions?
anabolic
anabolic pathways use products generated by catabolic reactions, precursor metabolites and energy to build:
monomers and coenzymes
essential small molecules which act together with enzymes to catalyze metabolic reactions:
coenzymes
ready made molecules which act as coenzymes or precursors:
vitamins
what are the 2 types of anabolic pathways?
branched and unbranched
what anabolic pathway is a single precursor metabolites used to generate several different products?
branched
what anabolic pathway is a single precursor metabolite utilized to generate a single product?
unbranched
carbohydrates can be synthesized from carbon dioxide through:
photosynthesis
photosynthesis synthsizes carbohydrates from:
carbon dioxide
carbon dioxide photosynthesizes:
carbohydrates
carbohydrates and non-carb precursors are photosynthesized through a collection of pathways called:
gluconeogenesis
lipids are synthsized through a variety of routes, most of which are the reverse of their:
catabolism
amino acids are synthesized through:
animation or transanimation
nucleotides are produced from precursor metabilites of glycolysis and:
krebs cycle
what is produced from precursor metabolites of glycolysis and kreb's cycle?
necleotides
polymerization reactions occur when _________ and other molecular biliding blocks generated through anabolic reactions are joined together to form ___________
monomers
macromolecules
polymerization reactions include:
DNA replication
transcription
translation
polymerization of deoxyribonuleotides:
DNA replication
polymerization of ribonucleotides
transcription
polymerization of amino acids
translation
the assembly of cellular structures from macromolecules generated through polymerization can occur in what 2 ways?
self assembly
enzyme catalized assembly
self assembly proceeds:
spontaneously
enzyme catalized assembly proceeds:
requires enzymes
penicillin binding proteins catalyze reactions which connect units of:
peptidoglycan
FADh2
electron carrier produced during the Krebs cycle
NADH
electron carrier that stores energy used to make ATP