Metabolism is the collection of all _____________ reations which take place within an organism.
Microorganisms must aquire their nutrients from:
external environments (serves as raw material for metabolic reactions).
enzymes facilitate catabolic reations to form elementary building blocks called:
Precursor metabolites and enzymes construct larger building blocks in what type of reactions?
anabolic reactions, enzymes and energy link to form macromolecules in what type of reactions?
cells grow by ASSEMBLING macromolecules into cellular structures such as:
ribosomes, membranes and cell walls.
what ESSENTIAL nutrients must be obtained from external environments?
nitrogen, sulfer, phosphorus, oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen (HONCS)
What types of transport systems do cells use?
simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport, and group translocation.
In what type of transport do nutrients move from one area of high to low concentration?
In what type of transport requires a transmembrane transport protein to mediate the transfer of nutrients from an area of high to low concentration?
what type of transport requires transmembrane transport protein which use ATP (energy) to transfer nutrients into the cell from an area of low to high concentration?
what type of transport requires that nutrients enter the cell by facilitated diffusion, followed by chemical modiciation and require energy?
phosphorylation that involves the transfer of phosphate to ADP from another phosphorylated organic compound:
phosphorylation that occurs when energy from redox reactions of respiration used to attach inorganic phosphate to ADP
phosphorylation that occurs when light energy is used to phosphorylate ADP with inorganic phosphate
Catabolic pathways are a series of reactions which break down larger molecules into smaller molecules and release:
energy (ATP and heat)
first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid
glycolysis involves splitting a _____ carbon glucose molecule into 2 three carbon molecules of _______________
6; pyruvic acid
glycolysis yeilds two molecules of NADH (potential energy) and six precursor __________ including glucose-6-phosphate and pyruvic acid.
in glycolysis, 2 molecules of ATP are invested and 4 molecules of ATP are produced by:
cellular respiration occurs in what three stages?
1. synthesis of acetyl-CoA;
2. the Kreb's cycle;
3. electron transport chain
during synthesis of acetyl-CoA, enzymes remove a carbon from each molecule of pyruvic acid as _________
in synthese of Acetyl-CoA, one molecule of ______ is generated per molecule of _______
NADH; pyruvic acid
During synthesis of acetyl-CoA join the remaining acetate molecule to _________ producing a molecule of _________
coenzyme A; acetyl-CoA
The Kreb's cycle occurs in the ______ of ________ cells and the matrix of _________ in ________ cells.
cytoplasm of prokaryotes; mitochondria of eukaryotes
Each turn of the Krebs cycle yeilds:
4 precursor metabolites; 1 molecule ATP; 3 molecules of NADH and 1 molecule of FADH2; and 2 molecules of carbon dioxide.
The electron transport chain is located where?
In the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes
In the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes
the electron transport chain consists of a sweries of membrane bound carrier molecules which pass ________ from one to another and ultimately to a final electron _______
During the electron transport chain, _______ use oxygen and _______ use sulfate, nitrate, or carbon
the energy of the electrons is used to pump protons across the membrane establishing:
a proton concentration gradient
The total production of ATP from a molecule of of glucose oxidized through cellular respiration in prokaryotes is: _______ in eukaryotes is______.
prokaryotes = 38 molecules of ATP
eukaryotes = 36 molecules of ATP
if the final electron acceptor is absent, sugar molecules can be partially oxidized through:
lactic acid fermentation begins with glycolysis and is followed by:
reduction of pyruvic acid into lactic acid
alcohol fermentation begins with glycolysis, followed by:
conversion of pyruvic acid into ETHONOL and CARBON DIOXIDE using the NADH generated during glycolysis
in mixed acid fermentation, pyruvic acid is converted to at least _____ different end products including:
1. lactic acid
2. acetic acid
3. formic acid
4. succinic acid
5. hydrogen gas
6. carbon dioxide
the 2 precursor metabolites in pentose phosphate cannot be generaged from:
glycolysis or the Krebs Cycle
the pentose phosphate pathway yields:
2 precursor metabolites
2 molecules of NADPH
1 molecule of ATP
what pathways are a series of synthesis reations which utilize the products generated by catabolic reactions?
anabolic pathways use products generated by catabolic reactions, precursor metabolites and energy to build:
monomers and coenzymes
essential small molecules which act together with enzymes to catalyze metabolic reactions:
what anabolic pathway is a single precursor metabolites used to generate several different products?
what anabolic pathway is a single precursor metabolite utilized to generate a single product?
carbohydrates and non-carb precursors are photosynthesized through a collection of pathways called:
lipids are synthsized through a variety of routes, most of which are the reverse of their:
polymerization reactions occur when _________ and other molecular biliding blocks generated through anabolic reactions are joined together to form ___________
the assembly of cellular structures from macromolecules generated through polymerization can occur in what 2 ways?
enzyme catalized assembly