57 terms

World Geography Unit 1 Review

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Terms in this set (...)

globe
A spherical representation of Earth.
cartographer
Specialist who make and design maps.
grid system
Pattern formed as the lines of latitude and longitude cross one another.
northern hemisphere
The half of the Earth that lies north of the equator.
western hemisphere
The half of the Earth comprising North and South America and surrounding waters; Longitudes 20 degrees West and 160 degrees East often considered its boundaries.
great circle route
An imaginary line that follows the curve of the Earth and represents the shortest distance between two points.
eastern hemisphere
The part of Earth east of the Atlantic Ocean including Europe, Asia, Australia, and Africa; Longitudes 20 degrees west and 160 degrees East often considered its boundaries.
southern hemisphere
The half of the Earth that lies South of the Equator.
location
Describes where a specific place is on earth.
absolute location
Describes exactly where a place is located. To do this you could use degrees of latitude and longitude or an exact address.
relative location
Describe a place in its relation to another place. You might say a place is near, above, west of, etc
place
Describes the physical and human characteristics. Physical characteristics are things like terrain, height above sea level, land forms and climate. One human characteristic is population.
region
Artificial creations geographers use to divide the world into sections that describe the similarities you may find in a place. These can include language, culture, physical features, similar historical background, etc.
movement
Describes how people, goods, information and culture got to a particular place
human-environment interaction
Describes how humans have changed a particular place (such as through canals, highways, etc.) and how humans adapt to the environment around them (like wearing jackets in cold climates).
projection
A way of showing the Earth on a flat surface
cartography
The science of producing maps
distortion
A bending or twisting out of shape, size, or distance.
mercator projection
The landforms on this map become increasingly distorted the farther you get from the equator. Compare the size and shape of Greenland and Antarctica on this map to those landforms on a globe; the distortion will be obvious.
robinson's projection
Combines the good parts of several other map projections, resulting in minimal distortion of most of the Earth's land masses.
goode's interrupted projection
Reduces distortion but breaks the oceans and Antarctica into pieces. This projection shows the true size and shape of Earth's landmasses, but distances are generally distorted.
conic projection
Latitude lines are curved on this kind of map. These projections are best suited for showing limited east-west areas that are not too far from the Equator.
gall-peters projection
Latitude and longitude lines are shown as straight lines lines that cross at right angles. Sizes are accurate. Shapes and distances are not correct
latitude
Lines that run east and west, but measure north and south of the equator.
longitude
lines that run north and south, but measure east and west of the prime meridian.
key/legend
tells what the symbols on the map mean
scale
The size of an area on earth and is used to find distance between to points on a map
prime meridian
0° longitude line that runs from the north pole to the south
pole from which other longitudes are calculated.
equator
0° latitude line that runs east and west all the way around the earth from which other latitudes are calculated.
political Map
Shows location of countries, states, and provinces and boundary lines separation governments
• It does not show physical
features.
• A capital city is usually
marked with a star within
a circle.
• The maps may be black
and white, or they may
use color to show different
countries.
physical or relief map
shows natural physical features of an area such as mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers, oceans etc.
• These maps do not contain man made features.
• Green is usually used at lower elevations, and orange or
brown show higher elevations.
• This map would be a map of what you would see if you were looking down on Earth from space
economic map
Can see the locations of natural resources, industrial areas, farmlands, and fishing areas.
travel or transportation map
Also known as a road map and shows roads, airports, etc
thematic map
Can represent a variety of information including things like climate, precipitation, vegetation, elevation, population, life expectancy, etc.
• These maps are generally used when you are looking
at a single piece of information.
• These maps are easy to understand.
topographic map
Include contour lines to show the shape and elevation of
an area.
• Lines that are close together show steep terrain, and lines
that are far apart show flat terrain.
• Geologists depend on topographic maps to record the
types of rocks. Engineers use topographic maps when
they are planning roads, buildings, or other human-made
structures.
maps
Pictures or representations of the Earth's surface on a flat surface piece of paper.
They show how places are related to each other by distance, direction, and size.
compass rose
Figure on the map or globe that indicates direction.
5 regions of the U.S.
West
Middle West
South West
South East
North East
west U.S. region
includes:
Washington
Oregon
Nevada
Idaho
Montana
Utah
Colorado
Wyoming
California
middle west U.S. region
includes:
North Dakota
South Dakota
Nebraska
Kansas
Missouri
Iowa
Minnesota
Wisconsin
Illinois
Indiana
Ohio
Michigan
south east U.S. region
includes:
Arkansas
Louisiana
Mississippi
Alabama
Georgia
Florida
Tennessee
Kentucky
South Carolina
North Carolina
West Virginia
Virginia
north east U.S. region
includes:
Massachusetts
Maine
New York
Vermont
New Hampshire
New Jersey
Delaware
Connecticut
Rhode Island
Maryland
Pennsylvania
south west U.S. region
includes:
Texas
New Mexico
Arizona
Oklahoma
low latitudes
One of the 5 lines of latitude that are near the equator and have the hottest and tropical climates.
high latitudes
One of the 5 lines of latitude that are near the poles and have a polar climate.
middle or mid latitudes
Two of the 5 lines of latitude between the high latitudes and low latitudes of each hemisphere and have a temperate climate one in the northern
tropic of cancer
The circle marking the latitude 23.5 degrees NORTH, where the sun is directly overhead at noon on June 21, the beginning of summer in the northern hemisphere.
tropic of capricorn
The circle marking the latitude 23.5 degrees SOUTH where the sun is directly overhead at noon on December 21, the beginning of winter in the northern hemisphere.
formal regions
Regions that are specifically spelled out by government or administrative bodies.
Examples:
The Rocky Mountains
state boundaries
functional regions
Regions that exist because they serve a particular
function.
Examples:
school boundaries
Congressional districts
cellphone service areas
vernacular regions
Regions that are very loosely defined by people's understanding or perception
Examples:
The South or Deep South,
The Middle East
South Pacific
5 themes of geography
location
place
region
movement
human-environment interaction
examples of place
New York can be described as having the statue of liberty, lots of people, and has a coast.
The bathroom can be described as having a door, a sink, a tub, and a window.
example of region
Due to the proximity of the US Mexico border there is a large Hispanic presence in the southwest U.S.
The Corn Belt stretches from Indiana to Nebraska.
examples of human-environment interaction
Interstate 70 winds around the Rocky Mountains of Colorado allowing people to view the wild life while still crossing the state by motor vehicle.
My parents live in a log house.
examples of movement
Interstate 35 stretches from Duluth, Minnesota to Laredo, Texas allowing imports from Mexico to reach the northern U.S.
I can view the news on Satellite TV and know what's going on in Russia or read about it online.
examples of location
St. Francis is located near the Galaxy theater
Your address is another example

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