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from a cold tundra to tropical rainforests


a requirement for life. from aquatic swamps to terrestrial forrests and desserts


global climate patterns are determined by sunlight and the plants movement in space. Produces temperature variations, air movement, and water evaporations. REquired by autotrophic plants for photosynthesis.

Soil pH

hydrogen concentration in the soil affects ability of plant roots to take up certain minerals and it can also affect benegicial fungi and bacteria. Limstone soils are basic, high sulfur soils are acidic. high pH=low acidity


high salinity(excess Na and K) interfeers with uptake of other metal ions needed by plant.

Mineral nutrients

supply needs for growth (nitrogen, phosporus, calcium, sulfur wtc.). deficiences produce disease excess leads to toxicity.

In Animals and PLants (reptiles)

Temperature (col blooded not in tundra because slow to accclimate), Water( need less, common in desserts), and food (need less, reduced predation)

Animals: Territory

a bounded physical space that an animal defends against encroachment, usually by members of its own species. It reduced competition for food, shelter, mates, and nesting.

Animals:Breeding Sites

locations where animals gather to mate. Examples: alligators need to excavate pits, many bird species migrate to particular locations, swallows return to San Juan Capistrano in Cali, and Monarch butterflies gather in forests in mexico

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