39 terms

AP US History 1st Section Flashcards

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Mesoamerica
The region of Central America where the Maya, the Aztecs and other ancient cultures existed.
Amerindian
A member or descendant of any of the native people groups living in North America. Central America, or South America before the arrival of the Europeans in the late fifteenth century.
Cahokia
An Indian center for trade in 1200 A.D. that was once located near present-day St. Louis. Cahokia is an example of how advanced peoples had been in the Americas well before the arrival of the colonists in the early 1600's.
Mississippi Culture
Mississippian culture of the central Mississippi River Valley of the current United States, which thrived from A. D. 600 to A. D. 1500.
Pueblo Indians
They were located in the Rio Grande Valley and constructed intricate systems to water their cornfields. They were dwelling in villages of multistoried terraced buildings when Spanish explorers made contact with them in the sixteenth century.
Iroquois (Haudenosaunee)
Native American tribe that the French fought against alongside the Huron Indians; hampered French penetration of the Ohio Valley and allied themselves with the British during the Seven Years War
Atlatl
This was a tool that utilized leverage to achieve greater velocity in dart-throwing.
St. Augustine
a Spanish fortress that was erected in 1565; the oldest continually inhabited European settlement in the future United States
Bartolome de las Casas
Spanish missionary who was appalled by the encomienda system in Hispaniola and called it "a moral pestilence invented by Satan"
Creolization of culture
Creolization is the process in which Creole cultures emerge in the New World as s a result of colonization. A new culture mixed between people of indigenous, African, and European descent emerged.
Mayans
The Mayan were inhabitants of the Yucatan Peninsula whose civilization was at it's height from AD 300 to AD 900. Their civilization included a unique system of writing, math, architecture, and astronomy.
Montezuma
An Aztec chieftain who believed that the Europeans were Gods and after sending them gifts welcomed them into the Aztex capital Tenochititlan. Eventually Montezuma attacked the Spanish, and the Spanish in turn took over the city.
Aztecs
Mesoamerican civilization that thrived in the 14th and 15th Centuries A. D
Incas
Highly advanced South American civilization that occupied present-day Peru until they were conquered by Spanish forces under Francisco Pizarro in 1532. The _____ developed sophisticated agricultural techniques, such as terrace farming, in order to sustain large, complex societies in the unforgiving Andes Mountains.
Sir Walter Raleigh
Sponsor of an ill-fated expedition of colonists, who in 1587 settled Roanoke Island on the Outer Banks of North Carolina, also known as the 'Lost Colony.'
Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty between Spain and Portugal defining the Spanish claim on exploration and settlement west of the Cape Verde Islands.
Encomienda
System used by the conquistadores, whereby favored officers became privileged landowners who controlled Indian villages or groups of villages.
Cartier
(1491-September 1, 1557) was a French navigator and explorer who first described and mapped[1] the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the shores of the Saint Lawrence River, which he named Canada.
De Soto
He took six hundred armor-plated men on a gold seeking expidition during 1539-1542. Floundering through marshes and pine barrens, from Florida westward he discovered and crossed the Mississippi river. After brutally mistreating the indians with iron collars and fierce dogs he at length died of disease and wounds. His body was secretly thrown in the Mississippi River so the indians wouldn't mutilate it
Hernan Cortes
Ruthless leader of the conquistadores, Spanish soldiers who invaded and eventually destroyed the Aztec culture.
Cabeza de Vaca
Spaniard who explored southern parts of southwestern America between 1528 and 1536
Columbian Exchange
An exchange between the Old World, New World, and Africa. In this exchange the Old World gave the New World food, animals, and diseases. Africa gave the New World slaves. Lastly, the New World gave the Old World gold, silver, raw materials, and syphilis.
John Cabot
(Giovanni Caboto); explored northeastern coast of North America for England in 1497 and 1498
Vespucci
An Italian explorer, Vespucci published a wildly popular account of his voyages in the New World near the North Americn continent in 1503. A German mapmaker named the newly discovered continents after him to honor his achievements.
Verrazzano
Italian who probed easten seaboard in 1524 for the French
Ponce de Leon
Governor of Puerto Rico, and first known explorer of Florida.
Champlain
Samuel de Champlain was a French explorer who sailed to the West Indies, Mexico, and Panama. He wrote many books telling of his trips to Mexico City and Niagara Falls. His greatest accomplishment was his exploration of the St. Lawrence River and his latter settlement of Quebec.
Marquette
French missionary who accompanied Louis Joliet in exploring the upper Mississippi River valley (1637-1675)
Joliet
claim Great Lakes and Ohio River Valley for the French accompanied by Marquette
Fort Caroline
Fort Caroline was the first French colony in the present-day United States. Established in what is now Jacksonville, Florida, on June 22, 1564, under the leadership of René Goulaine de Laudonnière, it was intended as a refuge for the Huguenots. It lasted one year before being obliterated by the Spanish, who attacked it to protect the gold and silver that they mined from the offshore Gulf Stream.
Moctezuma
He was the Aztec chieftain. He sent gifts to the Spaniards welcoming them. Moctezuma believed that Cortes was the god Quetzalcoatl and so he allowed the Spaniards to approach the capital city unopposed. June 30, 1520 he had the Aztecs attack the Spaniards, driving them down the causeways from Tenochtitlan in a frantic bloody retreat.
Caste
an exclusive or rigid social distinction based on birth, wealth, occupation, and so forth.
Spanish Armada
Spanish fleet (made by Phillip II) that was conquered by smaller, swifter English ships and a storm in 1588; marked the beginning of the end of Spanish imperial dreams and ensured English naval dominance in the North Atlantic
Aztecs
Native American empire that controlled present-day Mexico until 1521, when they were conquered by Spanish Hernán Cortés. The Aztecs maintained control over their vast empire through a system of trade and tribute, and came to be known for their advances in mathematics and writing, and their use of human sacrifices in religious ceremonies.
Maize
Maize (Indian corn) Their advanced agricultural practices, based primarily on the cultivation of maize, which is Indian corn, fed large populations, perhaps as many as 20 million in Mexico alone. Agriculture, especially corn growing, accounted for the size and sophistication of the Native American civilizations in Mexico and South America. About 5000 B.C. hunter-gatherers in highland Mexico developed a wild grass into the staple crop of corn, which became their staff of life and the foundation of the complex, large-scale, centralized Aztec and Incan nation-states that eventually emerged. Cultivation of corn spread across the Americas from the Mexican heartland. Everywhere it was planted, corn began to transform nomadic hunting bands into settled agricultural villagers, but this process went forward slowly and unevenly. Corn planting reached the present-day American Southwest by about 1200 B.C. and powerfully molded Pueblo culture. Corn cultivation reached other parts of North America considerably later. The timing of its arrival in different localities explains much about the relative rates of development of different Native American peoples. Throughout the continent to the north and east of the land of the Pueblos, social life was less elaborately developed—indeed "societies" in the modern sense of the word scarcely existed. No dense concentrations of population or complex nation-states comparable to the Aztec empire existed in North America outside of Mexico at the time of the Europeans' arrival one of the reasons for the relative ease with which the European colonizers subdued the native North Americans.
Mercantilism
the economic theory that all parts of a nation's or empire's economy should be coordinated for the good of the whole state/empire; hence, that colonial economic welfare should be subordinated to that of the imperial power. (This system was embraced by the British and opposed by many colonists who believed they were being used for the mother country's sole benefit).

Remember: there were advantages for the colonists as well

Note: British mercantilism promoted any form of free market in the colonies, including preventing them from printing their own paper money. One of the ways in which mercantilism harmed the colonial economy was by inhibiting the development of banking and paper currency in the colonies.

British mercantilism enforced restrictions on colonial manufacturing, trade, and paper currency.
Leif Erikson
is the alleged leader of a group of Icelandic people who sailed to the eastern coast of Canada and unsuccessfully attempted to colonize the area around the year 1000, nearly 500 years before Columbus arrived in the Americas
Christopher Columbus
(bt. August and October 1451 - May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer who was instrumental in Spanish colonization of the Americas. Though not the first to reach the Americas from Europe (the Vikings had reached Canada many years earlier, led by Leif Ericsson), Columbus' voyages led to general European awareness of the hemisphere and the successful establishment of European cultures in the New World.
Joint Stock Company
Companies made up of group of investors who bought the right to establish plantations from the king
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