Experience Psychology- Chapter 3: Sensation and Perception: Study Question
Terms in this set (162)
The _______ are receptors in the retina that function especially well in low light conditions, and are everywhere in the retina except for the fovea.
_______ are receptors cells contained in the retina and are useful in low light conditions.
Which of the following are monocular cues that help with depth perception?
Texture gradient, linear perspective, and familiar size.
_______ cues are powerful depth cues that are available from the image in one eye
The name for receptor cells located on the tongue that can sense taste is:
The taste buds in the mouth are contained in rounded bumps called _______.
Which of the following are functions of the sense of smell?
Avoiding rotten food, determining acceptable food, and detect dangers in the environment (e.g., the smell of smoke)
The _______ is an active instrument and we actively sniff when we are trying to tack the source of an object of interest.
Which sense provides information about balance and movement?
The _______ sense provides information about balance and movement.
Which of the following are attributes of the retina?
It contains rods and cones, and it coverts lights into electrical impulses to be sent to the brain.
The _______ is the part of the eye where visual images are converted to electrical impulses that can be transmitted to the brain.
The perceptual interpretation of the frequency of a sound is called:
_______ is the perceptual interpretation of the frequency of a sound.
Which of the following are the Gestalt principles of organization?
Similarity, closure, and proximity.
The Gestalt principles include:
closure, proximity, and similarity.
Focusing on a specific aspect of experience while ignoring other is:
Bette is able to focus on one voice in a crowded restaurant, demonstrating:
The difference between the images in the two eyes or the _______ is the binocular cue the brain uses to see in three dimensions.
Three characteristics of wavelengths of light are:
saturation, purity, and amplitude.
Three characteristics of wavelengths of light are _______, saturation, and purity.
How can an animal distinguish among sight, sound, odor, taste, and touch considering that all communicate with the nervous system, through action potentials?
Sensory receptors are selective and have different neural pathways, receptors are specialized to absorb a particular type of energy and transform it into an action potential, and there are different types action potentials for each sense, so the central nervous system can interpret each correctly.
Specialized cells that detect and transmit information to the sensory nerves and the brain are called:
Match the three main classes of sensory receptors with their corresponding function.
Photoreception = detection of light
Mechanoreception = detection of pressure and movement
Chemorecption = detection of smell and taste
The number of full sound wavelength cycles that pass through a point in a given time is called:
When air molecules begin to move, a _______ is created and detected by the ear.
The sorting out, interpretation, analysis and integration of stimuli by the sense organs and the brain is called.
The process of organizing and interpreting information brought in by the sense is called
Which of the following is involved in executive attention?
Th ability to allocate attention to goals, to deal with novel or difficult circumstances, and to plan actions.
Benjamin is legendary in his family for his ability to prepare huge, 5 course dinner completely on his own. He is able to plan and prepare each dish in such a way that everything is ready at just the right time. Even when something goes wrong in the kitchen (like the time that the kitchen timer broke), Benjamin is able to deal with the situation and successfully create a delicious meal. Benjamin's ability to successfully create a 5 course dinner is a good example of _______ attention.
The perception that a stationary object is moving is called:
The perception that a stationary object is moving is called apparent _______.
A change in the responsiveness of the sensory system based on the average level of surrounding stimulation is called:
The ability of the visual system to adjust to a dark room is an example of:
Sensory receptors adjust their response rates on the basis of the average amount of stimuli received, resulting in:
True or false: the responsiveness of the sensory system can change based on the average level or surrounding stimulation.
The three types of perceptual constancy are:
Size constancy, color constancy, and shape constancy.
The _______ threshold is the minimum amount of stimulus energy that a person can detect.
The absolute threshold is the
the smallest intensity of a stimulus that must be present for the stimulus to be detected half of the time.
The ______ is the part of the eye that contains rods and cones.
The part of the eye that contains rods and cones is the:
_______ are the receptor cells in the retina that we use for color vision.
_______ are receptor cells contained in the retina and are useful in color perception, particularly in bright light conditions.
Which areas of the cerebral cortex are specialized to process which kinds of sensory information?
occipital lobes = visual information
temporal lobes = hearing information
parietal lobes = pain, touch, and temperature information.
The _______ is the white, outer part of the eye that helps to maintain the shape of the eye and to protect it from injury.
Which of the following help people to localize sound?
Intensity of the sound, timing of the sound, and our ears.
Difference in the timing and intensity of the sound, help us to not just identify a sound, but _______ a sound.
_______ is the process of receiving stimuli energies from the environment, whereas _______ is the brain's process of organizing and interpreting sensory information to give it meaning.
_______ is the process of receiving stimulus energies from the environment.
The experience of one sense inducing an automatic experience in another sense (e.g., sight and hearing) is called:
My sister claims that she can taste colors. This is an example of:
The just noticeable difference is also referred to as the _______ threshold.
Though the image projected on your retina by a moving object changes, due to perceptual _______ you know the object is not actually changing shape.
Due to _______ constancy, you know that an image projected on your retina by a moving object is not actually changing shape.
Which of the following process or transmit information for the vestibular sense?
The cerebellum, the cochlear nerve, and the medulla.
The _______ sense provide information about movement, posture, and orientation.
Information about movement, posture, and orientation is provided via the _______ senses.
_______ is the sensation that warns us of damage to our bodies.
The sensation that warns us of damage to our bodies is called:
What is the purpose of pain?
To communicate when the body is being harmed.
The ________ _______ carries visual information out of the eye and to the brain for further processing.
The _______ carry(ies) visual information from the eye to the brain for further processing.
What are the main qualities of taste according to psychologist?
Salty, bitter, sour, and sweet.
The part of the eye that people see when they notice your eye color is called the _______
The colored part of the eye is called the:
The function of the outer ear is to:
collect and channel sounds
The outer, visible, funnel-shaped part of the ear is called the:
_______ perception refers to the detection on information below the level of conscious awareness.
Vicary's claims that very quickly flashing phrases like "eat popcorn" during a movie significantly improved popcorn sales. Although this turned out to be a fraudulent claim, if it were true, it would be strong evidence of:
When something causes a vibration and air molecules begin to move, _______ is create and can be detected by the ear.
Sound _______ is the movement of air molecules brought about by a source of vibration.
Sound wave are vibrations in the air processed by the _______ system.
_______ _______ are vibrations in the air processed by the auditory system.
Light is measured by:
_______ is a form of electromagnetic energy that can be described in terms of wavelengths.
The _______ is a fluid-filled coil in the inner ear.
The _______ is the part of the auditory system that is fluid-filled and coiled in shape, much like a snail's shell.
The _______ includes the principle that the whole is different from the sum of its parts.
The school of psychology that emphasizes that people naturally organize their perceptions according to certain patterns called
Which of the following are bones in the middle ear?
Stirrup, anvil, and hammer.
When considering sensation and perception, _______ is the initial activation of the receptors, whereas _______ is the processing of the information in the brain.
Specialized receptor cells in the sense organs detect stimuli from the environment. This is called _______. The brain then gives meaning to the stimuli, which is called _______.
In the eye, what is the purpose of the lens?
Focus light rays.
The _______ of the eye is a transparent, somewhat flexible structure. It is disc-shaped, filled with a gelatinous material, and helps the eye to focus.
What attribute of sound allows us to distinguish loud from soft sounds?
When the receptor cells have registered a _______, the energy is converted to an electrochemical impulse.
The energy that produces a response in the sense organs is called a _______.
The _______ cortex processes sensory information from the eyes in the occipital lobe of the brain.
Information regarding temperature is processed by _______ cells in the skin.
The _______ acts like a camera lens and opens or adjusts to let in more light when needed.
Visual _______ occurs because the cues we use to perceive the environment can lead to errors in artificial settings.
Which of the following occurs because the cues we use to perceive the environment can lead to errors in artificial setting?
The _______ is the part of the middle ear that vibrates when it is hit by sound waves.
The eardrum is the part of the _______ ear that vibrates when it is hit by sound waves.
_______ cues are depth cues that depend on the combination of the images in the left and right ear and on the way the two eyes work together.
Humans can visibly perceive light from about _______ to _______ nanometers.
True or false: Human can detect the vast majority of wavelengths of light that exist
_______ is the monocular cue that involves changes in perception due to the position of the light and the position of the viewer.
The _______ is a spot in the center of the retina, where we are best at processing visual detail
The _______ theory of color vision outlines three types of cones that work together to form color vision.
True or false: The trichromatic theory of color vision outlines three different types of rods that work together to create our experience of color vision.
What law of psychophysics states that two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount) to be perceived as different?
What principle of psychophysics is demonstrated here: If you are in a room with 60 lights, you cannot tell when one goes out; but when you are in a room with 6 lights you can easily tell when one goes out.
Having two ears helps us to _______ a sound because each receives somewhat different stimuli from the sound source.
The _______-_______ theory of color vision outlines how receptor cells for color vision are linked in pairs.
Which theory suggests that cells in the visual system respond in excitatory/inhibitory pairs, such as red/green or blue/yellow?
_______-_______ processing begins with the higher levels of the brain.
Processing that start out with cognitive processing at the higher levels of the brain is called:
A dandelion seed has landed on your arm but you can't feel it. Why?
The dandelion seed is so light that is has not cleared the absolute threshold for your sense of touch.
True or false: As humans, it would be best to have the lowest possible absolute threshold.
_______ theory of hearing states that each frequency of sound produces vibrations at a particular place on the basilar membrane.
What theory of hearing contends that areas of the basilar membrane are highly specialized, with each area responding to a different frequency?
Place theory of hearing
A predisposition, or readiness to perceive something in a particular way is called _______ set.
A predisposition, or readiness, to perceive something in a particular way is:
a perceptual set
The ability to maintain attention to a selected stimulus for a prolonged period of time is sometimes called vigilance. It is also called _______ attention.
Tim is 8 years old, and has trouble doing any one task for long. He's always getting up out of his seat, and he doesn't do well when he has to focus on any one project for long. Tim's teacher notes that Tim has trouble with
The _______ _______ takes sound information from the hair cells to the brain.
Which part of the brain takes sound information from the hair cells to the brain?
The auditory nerve
The _______ provide feedback to a gymnast's brain as her/his head and body tilt in different directions.
What is the purpose of the semicircular canals?
_______ energy is the type of environmental energy we detect with the sense of touch.
In the sense of touch, we detect _______ energy.
_______ theory of hearing states that perception of a sound's pitch depends on how often the auditory nerve fires.
What theory of hearing contends that the perception of sound's frequency depends on how often the auditory nerve fires?
Frequency theory of hearing
The hammer, _______, and stirrup act to amplify the sound waves traveling to the inner ear?
The hammer, anvil, and stirrup act to _______ the sound waves traveling to the inner ear.
Processing that commences with sensory receptors registering environmental information and sending it to the brain for analysis and interpretation is known as _______ processing.
Processing that is initiated by sensory information about the external environment is called:
Martin is trying to watch the big game while he's getting a soda our of the refrigerator. As a result, he doesn't find them, even though they are right in front of him. This situation illustrates
Edward gets into a minor fender bender because he collided with a car he didn't see while changing lanes to avoid a stray dog up ahead of him. Edward's failure to notice the car is an example of:
Which sense is most closely associated with memory?
Tammy state that every time she is around chicken frying, it reminds her of a picnic she an her parents went on when she was four years old. What sense is likely the most involved in this behavior?
A person who experiences high levels of pain with even minor injuries may have a neurotransmitter system that is deficient in _______ production.
The opening of the inner ear is called the _______ _______.
In bright light conditions, which receptors are more important for vision?
In low light conditions, which receptors are more important for vision?
What does the cornea do?
It protects the lens of the eye.
What do the cornea and lens have in common?
Both focus light.
Even though Sarah was trying to wash her car and not get distracted, she couldn't help but star when she saw something she'd never seen before; a hot air balloon drift over her neighborhood. This situation illustrates the effect of _______ stimuli on attention.
Why do people have a blind spot in vision?
there are no rods or cones in the space where the optic nerve passes through the retina.
True or false: Only some people have a blind spot on the retina.
_______ is the term used for irrelevant and competing stimuli
Which of the following is true of the sense of touch?
In touch we detect mechanical energy, or pressure against the skin
In the _____, fibers connect directly with the thalamus and then to the motor and sensory areas of the cerebral cortex.
As you walk barefoot in the park, your nose conveys to your brain the smell of the freshly cut grass; your skin sends information about the feel of the gentle breeze; and your ears transmit the sound of children laughing on the playground to your auditory cortex. This process of detecting stimuli in the environment is called
The _____ is made up of axons of the ganglion cells, which carries visual information to the brain for further processing.
Lauren is at the airport waiting to board her flight. She initiates a friendly conversation with another passenger. Despite the noise at the airport and multiple announcements being made at the same time, Lauren is able to focus on what the passenger is saying. This scenario best demonstrates the
Which of the following statements about research on color blindness is true?
The nature of colorblindness depends on which of the three kinds of cones (green, red, and blue) is inoperative.
The crossover point where the right visual field information goes to the left hemisphere is called the
Which of the following is true of sensatory receptors?
Sensory receptors are the openings through which the brain and nervous system experience the world.
Jane was in a car accident, which caused severe damage to her head. As a result, Jane's vision was affected. Although her eyes are able to detect visual stimuli and form images on her retina, her brain is not receiving the visual information. This problem with Jane's vision is most likely due to improper functioning of the
If Howard, a student, has the most common form of colorblindness, he will have trouble distinguishing
green from blue and red.
George is looking at the colors on a paint swatch card to select the right shade of red for his wall. He is able to differentiate between the various shades of red on the card and makes a quick decision. His perception of the differences in the shades can be attributed to the _____ of light reflecting from the shades.
A predisposition or readiness to perceive something in a particular way is known as
a perceptual set
Which of the following is true of auditory processing in the brain.
Most of the auditory information from the left ear goes to the right side of the brain, but some also goes to the left side of the brain.
You arrive at your friend's apartment for a big party at the end of the semester. When you first arrive, the music is so loud that it almost hurts your ears. After a couple of hours, even though the music is still at the same volume, it no longer bothers you or seems that loud. This change in your sensations describes the process of
In the auditory system, which of the following is true of the middle ear?
it channels and amplifies sound waves
Which of the following sensory processes is most activated when a person is watching a silent movie?
Which of the following is true of place theory?
Place theory states that low-frequency vibrations maximally displace areas of the membrane closer to the tip of the cochlea.
In depth perception, familiar size and relative size, height in field of view, and shading are examples of
Which part of an eye usually acts like the aperture of a camera, opening and closing depending on the amount of light required to enter the eye?
_____ is the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information so that it makes sense.