JOU 1303 Darden exam 1
Terms in this set (149)
the control of a product or service by one company
the control of the product and service by a few companies
the control of a product or service by numerous companies offering relatively limited products and services.
books, magazines, and newspapers
first copy costs
the added cost of the first unique good product.
the costs per unit of a good
the combination of media outlets across platforms
Digital Millenium Copyright Act
the piece of 1998 legislation that made digital piracy illegal while exempting internet service providers from liability.
the difference between those who derive the benefits of internet access and those who do not.
the effect wherein 80% of economic profit is made from the most affluent 20% of the population.
an economic model based on selling intangible information rather than products.
economy of scale
an economic model with high first costs and low marginal costs that heavily rewards expansion.
a good that requires the customer to experience it in order to judge its value
the cost that a user must pay to switch from one technological format to another.
the potential for divisions of a single company to share the same higher-level management structure.
the ability of a company to use the same content across platforms
a product that has some influence on or connection to cultural attributes
the process of making things the same
the take over of a local culture by a more powerful foreign one.
hegemons of capitalism
an important part of Gramsci's theory, it refers to the powerful states or state actors who seek and find control often without resorting to military dominance.
an economic force that promotes efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control.
a book with pages bound together and enclosed within a cover; the format used for modern books. Means block of wood in Latin.
rooms in monasteries where monks copied, decorated, and preserved volumes.
a handwritten document in which the text is embellished by decorative additions, including borders and illustrations.
Mechanical movable type
method of printing created by Johannes Gutenberg that uses small, moveable letters.
the period of immense cultural and technological change after Gutenberg's invention of mechanical moveable type.
the native language of a population
an inexpensive, pocket-sized booklet popular from the 16th to 19th centuries, usually containing popular literature such as folk, ballards, religious tracts, or children's stories.
the exclusive rights given to a work's creator or author, which includes the right to copy, distribute, and adapt the work
works not covered by intellectual property law or for which copyright protection has expired
an aspect of copyright law that specifies the ways in which a work under copyright can legally be used by someone other than the copyright user.
the biggest North American trade publishing houses. (Hachette Book Group, Macmillan, Penguin Group, Random House, and Simon & Schuster)
a book made up of letters of correspondence.
works that are intended to fit into a known genre or category, such as wester, romance, mystery, or science fiction.
sensationalistic stories from books and magazines that were named for the cheap, wood-pulp paper they were printed on.
the name given to a group of American writers who came to prominence in the 1950s and who were known for literary experimentation and nonconformity.
works that promoted cross-cultural understanding by examining different value systems, histories, traditions, and speech patterns of people in America
a series of books with recurring characters and high marketability.
all the copies of a book created in one set up of the printing apparatus.
a book with an initial print un in paperback instead of hardcover.
a paperback format that is generally small and inexpensively bound.
a paperback format that is generally of higher quality
the breakdown of data stored in digital form
the publishing industries focus on books with bestseller potential
a sum of money paid to the author in expectation of future royalties.
a percentage of a book's sales granted to its authors.
the basic cost of a CD or other item to a retailer before the addition of any retail profit.
a library that stores its collections digitally so they are accessible by computer.
works still protected by copyright, but the copyright owner is unknown or difficult to determine.
a printing technology in which new copies of a book are not created until an order is recovered.
a publishing system in which an author, not a third-party company, is in charge of producing and publishing a work.
a pejorative term for a publishing house that publishes books at the author's expense.
around 30 feet long and 7-10 inches wide.
longest Egyptian scroll
over 133 feet long
the number of copies of a magazine distributed
a journal that specializes in reporting and commenting on current events
the telling of stories through photography
a journal that specializes in photography and typically features large spreads of photos with short captions and few articles.
a magazine that specializes in the publication of fictional stories.
a publication that specializes in genre-fiction stores.
a publication that provides audiences with a behind-the-scenes look at the entertainment industry
a publication that provides an inside look into the lives of popular celebrities
the physical appearance and specifications of a magazine
audio content broadcast over the Internet.
a newspaper format popular in the 1830s, printed on a small paper sizes with a fast printing press and sold for a penny
the use of crime, violence, emotion, and sex in headlines to sell papers
weekly or biweekly journals that focus on entertainment or local issues
made famous by Pulitzer & Hearst, this style of journalism uses sensationalism, misleading stories and distorted images to boost sales.
impartiality in writing.
inverted pyramid style
a journalistic style in which the most important information is placed in the lead paragraph with additional information appearing in order of importance.
the credit line identifying the author of the article
an abbreviation of opposite the editorial page. An article written by an unaffiliated journalist that expresses opinions
a style of journalism that combines journalistic and fictional styles
a style of journalism that expresses a biased position to generate support for a cause
a style of journalism that employs social and behavioral science and research.
a style of journalism in which papers promote social and economic harmony, by focusing on shared, often local, issues.
a style of journalism that focuses on events, issues, or experiences outside of the social norm.
newspapers designed to reach a specific target group
papers that are typically printed with a small budget and that cover stories and events of interest to members of alternative or counter cultures.
independent scrutiny by the press of the activities of government, business, and other public institutions to document, question, and investigate those activities to provide the public and officials with timely information on issues of public concern.
newspaper preservation act
1970 Act of U.S. Congress allowing the formation of joint operating agreements between newspapers.
joint operating agreements
agreements between multiple newspapers that allow them to share the cost of business, advertising, and circulation operations.
features news and commentary from one or many authors. short for weblog
a newspaper that does not publish a print version.
professional journalist who writes a blog to gain better access to readers and their ideas
communication transmitted to large segments of the population
mean communication and transmission
those means of transmission that are designed to reach a wide audience; some examples are radio, newspapers, magazines, books, and video games, as well as Internet media such as blogs, podcasts, and video sharing.
the expressed and shared values, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of a social group, organization, or institution
a social space that is open to all, and that serves as a place for discussion of important issue. not always a physical space.
"the medium is the message"
a phrase coined by media theorist Marshall McLuhan asserting that every medium delivers information in a different way, and that content is fundamentally shaped by the medium of transmission.
a cultural period that began during the second half of the 20th century and was marked by skepticism, self-consciousness, celebration of difference, and the reappraisal of modern conventions.
large-scale theories that attempt to explain the totality of human experience.
the process by which previously distinct technologies come to share content, tasks, and resources
a culture in which media consumers are able to annotate, comment on, remix, and otherwise respond to culture.
indecency that goes against public morals and exerts a corrupting influence
law that regulates the exclusive rights given to the creator of a work.
communication that intentionally attempts to persuade its audience for ideological, political, or commercial purposes.
the people who help determine which stories make it to the public, including reporters who decide what sources to use, and editor who pick what gets reported on, and which stories make it to the front page.
the media, products, and attitudes considered to be part of the mainstream of a given culture and the everyday life of common people
people or organizations exert a strong influence on current trends, styles, and other aspects of popular culture.
the act of taking tasks traditionally performed by and individual and delegating into a usually unpaid crowd.
the skill of being able to decode and process the messages and symbols transited via media.
a social networking service geared toward younger users.
a 19th-century sound reproduction machine that originally recorded onto a tinfoil sheet wrapped around a cylinder.
the U.S. brand name for the phonograph. Uses a disc instead of a cylinder
Tin Pan Alley
a term used to refer to the area in Manhattan in which singer-songwriter and publisher teams worked in the early 20th century.
a popular form of variety entertainment in the early 20th century that included singing acts, magicians, comedians, and acrobats.
a jazzy style of piano music characterized by a syncopated melody that was influenced by offbeat dance music and music.
an improvisational style of music that emerged in New Orleans in the 1930s, characterized by syncopation and heavily accented rhythms.
a 12-bar musical form with a call-and-response format between the singer and his guitar that originated in the Mississippi Delta at the turn of the 20th century
the illegal practice of receiving money from record companies for playing particular songs on the radio.
rhythm and blues (R&B)
a combination of blues and jazz that was a precursor to rock and roll.
rock and roll
a blend of rhythm and blues, country and western, folk and gospel music that developed in the 1950s.
term used to describe the music of bands originating in the Mersey area of England during the 1960s. (ex: the Beatles)
carefree, hedonistic music that developed around the California surf culture in the 1960s and is characterized by twanging, distorted electric guitar sounds.
a blend of R&B, pop, gospel, and blues music.
successful record label founded by Berry Gordy Jr. in Detroit; characterized by smooth, soulful R&B tunes.
unpolished genre of music based on oral traditions and often associated with the social protest movement of the 1960s
folk music played with electric instruments
extravagant, self-indulgent form of rock that incorporated flamboyant costumes, heavy makeup, and elements of hard rock and pop
commercialized dance music that became popular in the 1970s and is associated with extravagant glittery costumes.
Minimalist, angry form of rock that includes simple chord structures and often includes politically motivated lyrics.
urban culture that incorporates activities such as break dancing and graffiti art with the musical techniques of rapping, sampling, and scratching records.
controversial form of hip-hop that highlights gang violence
sub genre of alternative rock named for its characteristic sludgy, distorted guitar sound.
the mass exodus of rural Southern Black individuals to urban Northern cities in the United States during the first half of the 20th century.
region in northwestern Mississippi, home of the Delta blues style of music
electrified style of blues created in Chicago when migrant bluesmen from the South, combined elements of Delta blues and urban blues.
the person in charge of the overall recording process, from contracting session musicians to overseeing the budget. A producer is usually a talented musician with knowledge of the technical processes in the recording studio.
civil rights movement
the 1950s and 1960s political movement that pushed to end racial segregation and gain equal rights for black Americans.
the post- Civil War separation of black and white individuals. Segregation was maintained by "Jim Crow" laws, which forbade interracial marriage and forced business owners and public institutions to keep their black and white clientele separated.
the practice of releasing a cover version of a song by a white artist on the heels of a hit by a black performer.
money received by songwriters and publishers every time one of their songs is played on a radio station, television show, film, soundtrack or other for-profit arena. Performance royalties are tracked by performing rights organizations, which collect fees on the publisher's behalf.
money received by songwriters and publishers every time a song is reproduced by another artist. Mechanical royalties are paid to whoever the copyright for a particular song, which is usually split between the writer and publisher.
the money received by an artist for every unit of music sold. the rate is negotiated in the artist's recording contract.
the practice of swapping media files over the Internet
term used in the music industry to refer to the four major record labels: Universal Music Group, EMI, Warner Music Group, and Sony Music Entertainment.
Indie record labels
independent record companies, also known as indies, not affiliated with any of the Big Four.
artists and repertoire (A&R) agent
talent agent working on behalf of a record label who finds and develops new artists with commercial potential
spin-off indie labels financially backed by one of the major record companies and headed by high-profile artists to create a "label within a label"
compressed digital audio files that are small enough to transfer over the Internet while maintaining high audio quality.
a communications model in which participants access shared files on each other's computers via the Internet.
a centralized online file-sharing system that enabled users to download and share free music. Napster was closed down for copyright infringement in 2000 and relaunched 3 years later as a subscription service.
a peer-to-peer system without a centralized database. The Gnutella network includes clients such as LimeWire, BearShare, and WinMX. Because it does not have a central network, the Gnutella network would be difficult to shutdown.
a free computer application first launched for the Mac computer in 2001 and later expanded to include PCs, that converts audio CDs into digital music files, organizes digital music collections, and plays Internet radio.
a portable MP3 player, launched by Apple in 2001 that is compatible with iTunes software. The iPod is the best-selling
digital rights management (DRM)
a collection of systems used to protect the copyrights of electronic media. Apple used DRM software to limit music purchased on iTunes so that it could only be played on Apple products. It removed these restrictions in 2009.
direct-to-fan business model
business used by independent artists and labels to market and distribute their music directly to fans, bypassing major record labels. New Internet Technology has made it possible for artist to use the direct-to-fan model successfully. It has been embraced by high-profile bands such as Radiohead and Nine Inch Nails.