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Pysch-Unit2
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Gravity
Terms in this set (31)
Hindsight bias
The tendency to believe after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen. (Also known as the I knew it all along phenomenon)
Critical thinking
Thinking that this not blindly accept arguments and conclusions rather examines assumptions discerns hidden values evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions
Theory
An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
Hypothesis
A testable prediction often implied by theory
Operational definition
A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables
Replication
Repeating the essence of a research study usually with different participants in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
Case study
An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
Survey
A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group usually by questioning a representative,a random sample of the group
Population
All the cases in the group being studied from which samples may be drawn
Random sample
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Naturalistic observation
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control of the situation
Correlation
A measure of the extent to which factors vary together and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
Correlation coefficient
Statistical index of the relationship between two things
Scatterplots
A graphed cluster of dots each of which represents the values of two variables the scope of the points suggest the direction of the relationship between the two variables
Illusory correlation
The perception of a relationship where none exists
Random assignment
Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, minimizing pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups
Experimentation
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process by random assignment of participants
Double-blind procedure
And experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the search parties depends have received the treatment or a placebo
Placebo effect
Results caused by expectations
Experimental group
The group that is exposed to the treatment (One version of the independent variable)
Control group
The group that is not exposed to the treatment contrast with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
Independent variable
The experimental factor that is manipulated the variable whose effect is being studied
Dependent variable
The outcome factor if I have all that maybe change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
Mode
The most frequently occurring scores in a distribution
Mean
The arithmetic an average of a distribution obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
Median
The middle score in a distribution ;half the scores are above it and half are below it
Range
The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
Standard deviation
A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
Normal curve
Estimate Trekell that was shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data
Statistical significance
A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
Culture
The enduring behaviors ideas attitudes and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
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