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Sully's Mid Year Term List
Terms for the Modern World History 2 Midyear Exam
Terms in this set (87)
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
dutch east india company
Government-chartered joint-stock company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies.
everyday speech; slang
king ferdinand and isabella
King and Queen of Spain who agreed to finance Christopher Columbus's expedition to the Americas in 1492
The Reconquering of Spain from the Muslims in 1492 by Ferdinand and Isabella. This unified Spain into a powerful nation-state.
the theological system of any of the churches of western Christendom that separated from the Roman Catholic Church during the Reformation
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
The founder of Protestantism whose religion, based on 95 Theses, rejected Catholic orthodoxy, the sale of indulgences, and papal authority.
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe. (p. 548)
A set of economic principles based on policies which stress government regulation of economic activities to benefit the home country
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
prince henry the navigator
(1394-1460) Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire.
European trade agreement with Africa dealing with slaves brought from Africa. Integral part of Triangle Trade between the Americas, Africa, and Europe.
the revolution against James II, A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)
German astronomer who first stated laws of planetary motion (1571-1630)
an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the scientific revolution. His achievements include the first systematic studies of uniformly accelerated motion, improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations, and support for Copernicanism.
Greatest of enlightened philosophers; He was educated by Jesuits, and came to challenge Catholic Church. He believed in distant deistic God - a clockmaker who built an orderly world and let in run under laws of science. He hated religious intolerance and felt that religion suppressed human spirit. He wrote Candide against evils of organized religion. He argued for religious toleration in Treatise on Toleration. His deism was intended to construct a more natural religion based on reason and natural law. He was imprisoned in the Bastille for 11 months in 1717. Then he was exiled in England for 3 years, when he came to admire their system of government and advocated freedom of thought and respect for all. Lived on the court of Frederick the Great of Prussia from 1743, where he supporter Enlightened Despotism.
Philosophe who wrote "Spirit of Laws" in 1748. He described the British model of divided branches of government with checks and balances as the ideal system, later influencing the framing of the U.S. Constitution.
East India Company
Dutch tea company that helped overseas expansion, traded with Africa and India, formed to establish and direct trade throughout Asia. These companies had the power to mint money, make treaties, and even raise their own armies. The Dutch East India Company was richer and more powerful than England�s company. As a result, the Dutch eventually drove out the English and established their dominance over the region
served in the American Revolutionary War both as a general and as a diplomat and was a key figure in the early phases of the French Revolution, serving in the Estates General and the subsequent National Constituent Assembly.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Document written by Lafayette and Thomas Jefferson. Stated very well that political sovereignty did not rest in the hands of a monarch but rather with the nation at large. All citizens were equal before the law and in enjoyment of rights and responsibilities of society. Freedom of religion, freedom of the press, freedom to engage in economic activity of their choice. Property was inviolable and sacred.
Reign of Terror
Lasted from September 5, 1793 - July 28, 1794 and was a period of about 10 months during the French Revolution when struggles between rival factions led to mutual radicalization which took on a violent character with mass executions by the guillotine. It is generally associated with the figures of Maximilien Robespierre and Georges Danton and is popularly represented as an archetype of revolutionary violence.
(1778-1842) South American Independence leader who freed Chile from spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence, considered one of Chile's founding fathers
A person who is neither an extreme liberal or conservative and stands in the middle of political spectrum
a believer or follower of Islam
Treaty of Tordesillas
a 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
a person of mixed racial ancestry (especially mixed European and Native American ancestry)
Aztec chieftan; encountered Cortes and the Spanish and saw that they rode horses; Montezuma assumed that the Spanish were gods and Cortez was the great Quetzalquotal. He welcomed them hospitably, but the explorers soon turned on the natives and ruled them for three centuries.
Congress of Vienna
A conference of representatives from major European countries meeting to restore order after Napoleon's army was defeated.
Disease spread by Europeans in the Americas. Led to the deaths of millions of Native Americans in North and South America. Spanish Immunity to it greatly helped them in conquering the Aztec.
a rebirth or revival, Period in Europe beginning in about 1350 during which there was a new desire to learn more about the arts, sciences, and other parts of the world
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
formal statements written by Martin Luther attacking the "pardon-merchants". On October 31, 1517 Luther posted these statements on the door of a castle church in Wittenberg and invited other scholars to debate them. This began the Reformation.
Wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion; created the idea of predestination(God already who knows whos going to heaven and hell) through the elect; no free will
Scottish Protestant reformer who played an important part in the establishment of the Church of Scotland (Presbyterian Church); he wrote the "Book of Common Order."
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
conquistador, 1533- conquered Incans, started trend of shipping gold and silver
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 was the first European to get round the Cape of Good Hope (thus establishing a sea route from the Atlantic to Asia) (1450-1500)
This enormous, ostentatious monument to the power of the French Monarchy, built by Louis XIV over a long period of time, served as a manifestation of the power of absolute monarchy. Meant to impress and scare nobility, foreigners, and commoners alike, this palace was where Louis XIV moved his court in order to keep them under his control and away from the uncontrollable social scene in Paris.
Greek philosopher and teacher of Alexander the Great from most of the 4th century BC. Disagreed with Plato's theory, promoted a moderate democracy, order, and acceptance of roles. Also, taught geocentrism (earth is center of universe) and defined the four elements
(1596 - 1650) French scientist/mathematician/philosopher, law of optics, analytical geometry, proof of one's existence = "I think, therefore I am."
Sir Isaac Newton
1643-1727. English physicist, mathmetician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian. Published work in 1687 describing universal gravitation, and the three laws of motion, laying the groundwork for classical mechanics., Greatest figure of the Scientific Revolution; organized ideas of previous scientists into one system of mathematical laws to explain the orderly manner in which the planets revolve around the sun. The key feature of this thesis was the law of universal gravitation, which states that every body in the universe attracts every other body in precise mathematical relationships. Such proof showed that the universe operated by rules, which could be explained through math, and that religious interpretation was not the sole means of comprehending the forces of nature.
An Italian painter, sculptor, and architect of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Among many achievements in a life of nearly ninety years, Michelangelo sculpted the David and several versions of the Pietà, painted the ceiling and rear wall of the Sistine Chapel, and served as one of the architects of Saint Peter's Basilica, designing its famous dome. He is considered one of the greatest artists of all time.
French philosopher who was a leading figure of the Enlightenment in France
a person who favors an economic theory of laissez-faire and self-regulating markets
Declaration of Independence
July 4, 1776. This document stated that because the English king had broken the social contract, the colonists had the right to rebel. It includes a list of the king's abuses as well as a description of natural rights. With this document, Enlightenment ideas were put into practice.
queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular
French revolutionary, A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
Venezuelan statesman who led the revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule
an extreme conservative
During this dynasty, sailing expeditions reached as far as Africa. The voyages brought back a lor of fancy goods from overseas, but the main purpose of the voyages was to establish ties with foreign governments.
English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658)
an offspring of a Black and a White parent, The offspring of a white person and a black person.
Last ruling Incan emperor of Peru. Executed by the Spanish (Pizarro)
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
House of Commons
part of the British Parliament with 650 elected members, made up of mostly commoners, elected prime minister
Joint Stock Companies
These were business collaborations in which "subscribers" would buy a percentage of the company, and would get that same percent out of the company's profits. Stock markets were soon developed to trade shares in these companies, which included the Dutch East India Company and the English East India Company.
A priest who spoke out against the mistreatment of native peoples under the care of the church. He persuaded Spain to pass laws in 1542 saying that native peoples must be paid for their work.
the Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
French cardinal who strengthened the central government by destroying the power of the nobles
English Bill of Rights
King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
He was the first to prove that the new world really was a distinct landmass, separate from Asia. After sailing around around the southern tip of South America he sailed westward acrosst he Pacific and reached the Philippine Islands, claiming them for Spain.
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
king of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715)
Alexandrian astronomer who proposed a geocentric system of astronomy that was undisputed until Copernicus (2nd century AD)
Sir Francis Bacon
Developed the Scientific Method through the Inductive method (specific to general), wrote Novum Organum.
thinkers or philosophers of the Enlightenment
The intellectual revolution of the eighteenth century in which the philosophes stressed reason, natural law, and progress in their criticism of prevailing social injustices.
French philosopher from 1712-1778 who believed that people are naturally good, but are corrupted by society
a person who has conservative ideas or opinions, opposite of radical
3rd President of the United States, main author of the declaration of independence, very smart, copied john locke's: life, liberty, with his line in the declaration of independence: life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness
Storming of the Bastille
July 14th, 1789. There had been a rumor that the king had been planning a military coup against the national Assembly. The people decided to defend their city and marched to the Bastille prison for gunpowder. The governor of the prison refused them, so they fought until the prison surrendered. This saved the National Assembly. Is now called the "Bastille Day" and is France's Independence Day.
French nobility who fled country to escape the Revolution
French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)
was an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti. In a long struggle again the institution of slavery, he led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797, calling himself a dictator.
He lead seven great voyages. After he died, the government decided they didn't want to focus on voyages anymore, and put all their focus on Chinese culture. The government stopped the building of ships and letting ships with more than 2 masts come in.
A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians
belief that a rulers authority comes directly from God
a person descended from French ancestors in southern United States (especially Louisiana)
Mesoamerican deity, feathered serpent, Aztec believed Cortez was embodiement of him and therefore treated the spanish like gods
Process of industrial development in which countries evolve economically, from producing basic, primary goods to using modern factories for mass-producing goods. At the highest levels of development, national economies are geared mainly toward the delivery of services and exchange of information.
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